Ch_13 - Chapter 13 Discourse Analysis Discourse Analysis...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 13 Discourse Analysis Discourse Analysis How do we make sense of texts that we read? How How do we understand what speakers mean How despite what they say? (How do we interpret ambiguous or unclear statements embedded within texts or conversations?) What makes us think that one text is coherent or What connected while another is incoherent or jumbled? Cohesion Cohesion Cohesion Cohesive links Cohesive Coherence Coherence 1 Coherence Non-literal language: meaning something other Nonthan the literal meaning of our words. Her: That’s the telephone. Him: I’m in the bathtub. Her: Okay There aren’t any cohesive ties, but it’s a normal There conversation. If we analyze the conversation along the lines of speech acts, we can show how they are getting across more than what they say. Conversational interaction Turn-taking: only one person speaks at a time Turnand turns are pretty much continuous. Completion points: the signals or ways that a Completion speaker indicates that she has finished (pausing at the end of a phrase, asking a question, etc…) Conversational interaction Ways speaker can hold the floor by avoiding normal completion points: Use hesitation markers Use Throw in extra connector words Throw Pause in the middle of the message Pause 2 Co-operative principle of CoConversation Grice’s maxims: Quantity: make your contribution as informative Quantity: as is required – no more, no less – be to the point. Quality: do not say that which you believe to be Quality: false or for which you lack evidence – be truthful Relation: be relevant Relation: Manner: be clear, brief, orderly. Manner: Co-operative principle CoImplicature: a proposition that is implied by an Implicature: utterance but is not part of the utterance and doesn’t follow as a necessary consequence of the utterance. Entailment: a necessary consequence of an Entailment: utterance. Sentence A entails sentence B if the truth of sentence A insures the truth of sentence B and if sentence B is false it insures that sentence A is false. Implicature A: Uncle Bill is coming over for dinner tonight. B: I guess we’d better lock up the liquor. 3 Entailment A:: Paul was driven home by Liz. A B: Liz drove Paul home. A:: Bill suffered a fatal heart attack. A B: Bill is dead. A:: John fried the fish. A B: John cooked the fish. A:: I have a test tomorrow. A B: I will study tonight. Background knowledge Schema: a conventional knowledge structure Schema: that exists in long-term memory. longScript: a dynamic schema in which a series of Script: conventional actions take place 4 ...
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