Unformatted text preview: Chapter 13
Discourse Analysis Discourse Analysis
How do we make sense of texts that we read?
How do we understand what speakers mean
despite what they say? (How do we interpret
ambiguous or unclear statements embedded
within texts or conversations?)
What makes us think that one text is coherent or
connected while another is incoherent or
Coherence 1 Coherence
Non-literal language: meaning something other
Nonthan the literal meaning of our words.
Her: That’s the telephone.
Him: I’m in the bathtub.
There aren’t any cohesive ties, but it’s a normal
conversation. If we analyze the conversation
along the lines of speech acts, we can show how
they are getting across more than what they say. Conversational interaction
Turn-taking: only one person speaks at a time
Turnand turns are pretty much continuous.
Completion points: the signals or ways that a
speaker indicates that she has finished (pausing
at the end of a phrase, asking a question, etc…) Conversational interaction
Ways speaker can hold the floor by avoiding
normal completion points:
Use hesitation markers
Throw in extra connector words
Pause in the middle of the message
Pause 2 Co-operative principle of
Quantity: make your contribution as informative
as is required – no more, no less – be to the
Quality: do not say that which you believe to be
false or for which you lack evidence – be
Relation: be relevant
Manner: be clear, brief, orderly.
Manner: Co-operative principle
CoImplicature: a proposition that is implied by an
utterance but is not part of the utterance and
doesn’t follow as a necessary consequence of the
Entailment: a necessary consequence of an
utterance. Sentence A entails sentence B if the
truth of sentence A insures the truth of sentence
B and if sentence B is false it insures that
sentence A is false. Implicature
A: Uncle Bill is coming over for dinner tonight.
B: I guess we’d better lock up the liquor. 3 Entailment
A:: Paul was driven home by Liz.
B: Liz drove Paul home.
A:: Bill suffered a fatal heart attack.
B: Bill is dead.
A:: John fried the fish.
B: John cooked the fish.
A:: I have a test tomorrow.
B: I will study tonight. Background knowledge
Schema: a conventional knowledge structure
that exists in long-term memory.
longScript: a dynamic schema in which a series of
conventional actions take place 4 ...
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- Fall '08
- entailment, conversational interaction