Ch_17 - Chapter 17 Second Language Acquisition Second...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 17 Second Language Acquisition Second language acquisition & learning L1= learner’s native language L1= L2= second language you learn L2= Acquisition and learning Acquisition: the gradual development of ability in a Acquisition: language by using it naturally in communicative situations. Your native language is acquired. Your Learning: a conscious process of accumulating Learning: knowledge of the vocabulary and grammar of a language. A second language that you study in school is acquired. second 1 Acquisition Language is unique. There is no other system of Language knowledge that we can learn better at age 2 or 3 than at 15 or 25. Giving us another reason to think that there is a genetic predisposition to acquire language during that critical period from birth to puberty. Barriers to second language learning Lack of need: you already have a native language Lack that meets your daily communicative requirements, so the urgency, the practical need driving first language acquisition is not there. Lack of time: trying to learn a second language is Lack difficult if you can only devote a few hours per week. Language learning Affective filter: the name of a barrier to language Affective acquisition (fear of making a mistake, lack of motivation, stress, etc) that results in negative feelings or experiences 2 Methods 1. Grammar-translation GrammarTreats the language like an academic subject Treats Emphasizes written rather than spoken language Emphasizes Involves memorization of vocabulary and Involves grammatical rules Methods 2. Audiological method developed in the 1950s and led to all the “teach developed yourself” language tapes Emphasizes spoken language Emphasizes Systematic presentation of language structures in Systematic the form of drills that the listener repeats Boring and no natural communicative interaction Boring Methods 3. Communicative approaches The most modern methods The Emphasizes functional use of language rather than Emphasizes learning the grammatical rules. 3 Learner Along with the communicative approach, there Along has been a shift in the focus of second language learning away from the teacher and the method to the learner and the process of acquisition. One reflection of this shift in emphasis is One toleration of errors. Learner The old approaches stressed avoiding errors, but The in the new approaches errors are seen as evidence about how the learner is learning. Errors are not barriers to progress. Errors Learner One common process in second language One learning is transfer of expressions or structures from the native language to the second language. Some errors might be due to transfer of Some expressions from L1 to L2. Transfer can be beneficial or detrimental Transfer depending upon how closely related the two are. 4 Learner Two types of transfer: Two Positive transfer: when a similarity between the two Positive languages helps with second language learning. Negative transfer/interference: when a difference Negative between the two languages hinders second language learning. Interlanguage Interlanguage: a system of structures used by an Interlanguage: adult learning a second language that contains features of both L1 and L2. Thought to be the basis of second language Thought learning in adults Motivation Motivation to learn a second language is a big Motivation factor in your success. A language-learning situation that encourages languagesuccess and accomplishment must seems more helpful than one that focuses on errors and corrections. 5 Input and output Input: the language that the learner is exposed Input: to. The input has to be comprehensible to aid the The person in learning the language. Foreigner talk has a simplified syntax and Foreigner vocabulary, like caretaker speech, to help the learner understand the message (“English class, you like it?”) Input and output Negotiated input: L2 material that the learner Negotiated can acquire in interaction through requests for clarification and active attention being focused on what is said. Drawing and gestures are often useful when a native Drawing speaker and a non-native speaker are trying to nonnegotiate the meaning of a word. Input and output Output: L2 utterances produced by the learner. Output: The opportunity to produce comprehensible output in The meaningful interactions seems to be a crucial factor in the learner’s development. 6 Communicative competence There are 3 aspects of communicative competence in the second language: 1. 2. 3. Grammatical competence: the accurate use of words and structures in the second language. Sociolinguistic competence: the ability to interpret or produce language appropriately (pragmatic factors) Strategic competence: the ability to organize a message effectively and to compensate for difficulties. 7 ...
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