Ch_5 - Study of Language Study of Language COMD 2050...

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Unformatted text preview: Study of Language Study of Language COMD 2050 Chapter 5: Sounds of Language 5 basic aspects of speech production 5 basic aspects of speech production Normal speech is produced through a complex series of movements that combine: Respiration: breathing. Phonation: producing voice. Articulation: forming speech sounds by constricting the airstream with the lips and the tongue. Resonance: allowing air flow through the nose during the production of some sounds. Prosody: adding stress and rhythm to your speech. Respiration Respiration Breathing provides the energy source for speech. The vocal folds (in the larynx) are the valves that control the air flow out of the lungs. Vocal folds = Vocal chords Larynx = Voice box Respiration Respiration The larynx is made of cartilage, so it feels hard like bone but the vocal folds are fleshy. They are made of muscle, collagen and membrane. The vocal folds are at the level of your Adam’s apple – top part of the larynx. The larynx is made of cartilage. The vocal folds are made of muscle, collagen and membrane. Phonation Phonation The production of a voice by the larynx. Air flowing between the moving vocal folds produces sound. Changes in the amount of air flowing through the vocal folds and the position and configuration of the vocal folds allow us to sing and talk at different pitches and loudness levels. Resonance Resonance Refers to whether air flows out of the nose. If the air flows out through the nose during speech, the sound produced is a nasal sound. If all the air goes out through the mouth, a nonnasal speech sound is produced. Articulation Articulation The ways in which the lower jaw, the tongue, and the lips modify the flow of air through the mouth to produce different speech sounds. Prosody Prosody We modify our respiration, phonation, and articulation in order to add stress and rhythm to our speech, to give it melody. Spelling v. Sound Spelling v. Sound ghoti spells fish: /gh/ of tough, /o/ of women, /ti/ of nation. seagh spells chef: /s/ of sure, /ea/ of death, /gh/ of laugh. Spelling v. Sound Spelling v. Sound English (Latin) alphabet has 26 letters How many sounds does English have? 40+ Sounds ≠ letters Same sound, different spelling Same sound, different spelling “See” see senile sea siege seize scenic –cease –cedar –Caesar –ceiling –juicy –sexy –glossy Spelling v. Sound Spelling v. Sound Solution: Phonetic alphabet Each sound represented by 1 character Each character represents (only) 1 sound Phonetics Phonetics Phonetics: the study of the characteristics of speech sounds. Articulatory phonetics: how speech sounds are made (articulated). Acoustic phonetics: physical properties of speech as sound waves in the air. Auditory phonetics: deals with the perception (ear) of speech sounds. Forensic phonetics: deals with legal cases involving speaker identification and the analysis of recorded utterances. Articulation Articulation 3 main factors Voicing Place of articulation Manner of articulation Articulation: voiced and voiceless Articulation: voiced and voiceless How speech sounds are produced. The air is pushed out by the lungs up through the trachea to the larynx. The vocal cords (inside the larynx) take two positions: voiced (+) and voiceless (­). While breathing, your vocal folds are spread far apart. They remain apart for voiceless and are closed for voiced. Voicing Voicing Position of vocal cords – larynx (Adam’s apple). Voiced: vocal cords are together (tight) and vibrating. (zzzzz), /b/and /d/ Voiceless: vocal cords are open (relaxed) and not vibrating (ssssss), /p/ and /t/. /s/ v. /z/ ­ /s/ voiceless and/z/ voiced /f/ v. /v/ ­ /f/ voiceless and /v/ voiced /θ/ v. // ­ /th/ voiceless and /th/voiced Place of articulation Place of articulation Where the sound is made. Most consonants are produced by using the tongue and other parts of the mouth –shape the oral cavity through which air is passing. The terms used to describe the sounds we produce involved the place of articulation. Start at the front of the mouth and work back. Remember to keep the voiced/voiceless in mind. Phonetic symbols are in brackets. Vocal tract (p. 42) Vocal tract (p. 42) ©1995 by Patricia Ashby, Speech Sounds. London: Routledge. Place of Articulation Place of Articulation Bilabials Labiodentals Dentals Alveolars Alveo­palatals Velars Glottal Place of articulation Place of articulation Bilabial Sounds made using upper & lower lips /p/ in pat /b/ in bat /m/ in mat /w/ in wish Bilabials Bilabials ©1995 by Patricia Ashby, Speech Sounds. London: Routledge. Place of articulation Place of articulation Labiodentals Sound formed with a constriction between the upper teeth and lower lip. /f/ in fat /v/ in vat Labiodentals Labiodentals ©1995 by Patricia Ashby, Speech Sounds. London: Routledge. Place of articulation Place of articulation Dentals Formed by tongue tip touching behind the upper front teeth. Sometimes called interdentals because they can also be produced with the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower teeth. /θ/ as in thin, ether, bath (voiceless /th/ ‘theta’) // as in then, either, bathe (voiced /th/ ‘eth’) Dentals Dentals ©1995 by Patricia Ashby, Speech Sounds. London: Routledge. Place of articulation Place of articulation Alveolar Made at alveolar ridge, the bony ridge behind your upper front teeth – the front part of the tongue touches the alveolar ridge. /t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /l/, /r/ Think about where tongue tip is for – top, dip, sip, zip, nip, lip, rip. Alveolars Alveolars ©1995 by Patricia Ashby, Speech Sounds. London: Routledge. Place of articulation Place of articulation Alveo­palatals Made by tongue toward the front of the hard palate (roof of your mouth) toward the alveolar ridge. /š/ as in shoe /č/ as in chew /ĵ/ as in joke, judge, rouge /ž/ as in pleasure, leisure /y/ as in you and yet (really palatal, but grouped with these). Mark above the symbol is called the wedge. Alveo­palatals Alveo­palatals ©1995 by Patricia Ashby, Speech Sounds. London: Routledge. Place of articulation Place of articulation Velars Made at roof of mouth at velum (soft palate, the fleshy back part of the roof of your mouth) – back of your tongue touches the velum. /k/ as in car /g/ as in go / / as in sing (angma). Sing has no /g/ sound. For angma the constriction is between the tongue and the velum, so the place of articulation is velar. The air happens to go through the nose so its is nasal. Velars Velars ©1995 by Patricia Ashby, Speech Sounds. London: Routledge. Glottals Glottals Made at the glottis – at the back of the throat. Produced without active use of the tongue and other parts of the mouth. /h/ as in have, hot, who – voiceless glottal Its voiceless because the vocal cords are spread apart, but the sound produced is caused by friction as air passes through the glottis, which is the space between the vocal folds. Manner of articulation Manner of articulation How sound is made – obvious differences in the way that sounds at a given place of articulation are produced. /t/ vs. /s/ are both alveolars but produced differently and the difference is called manner of articulation. /t/ cuts off the air flow /s/ has continuous air flow Manner of articulation Manner of articulation ©1995 by Patricia Ashby, Speech Sounds. London: Routledge. Manner of Articulation Manner of Articulation Stops Fricatives Affricates Nasals Approximates Manner of articulation Manner of articulation Stops /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/, /g/ Made by completely stopping air flow at some place and then suddenly released through the mouth. Stops Stops ©1995 by Patricia Ashby, Speech Sounds. London: Routledge. Stops Stops Bilabial p, b Place of Articulation Alveolar t, d Velar k, g Manner of articulation Manner of articulation Fricatives When we produce these, airstream is not completely blocked, but the opening at the place of articulation is very narrow – there is a lot of friction as the air goes through and that produces the noise associated with the sound. f, v, θ , , s, z, š, ž f, s, š, Fricatives Fricatives ©1995 by Patricia Ashby, Speech Sounds. London: Routledge. Fricatives Fricatives LabioDental f, v Place of Articulation Dental θ, Alveolar s, z AlveoPalatal š, ž Manner of articulation Manner of articulation Affricates These sounds you start with complete closure and slowly release it in a way that causes friction. Combination of stop + fricative (nearly simultaneous) /Č/ as in cheap and , /ĵ/ as in jeep Affricates Affricates ©1995 by Patricia Ashby, Speech Sounds. London: Routledge. Affricates Affricates Alveo-Palatal č, ĵ Place of Articulation Obstruents Obstruents Obstruct air flow through vocal tract Stops Fricatives Affricates Manner of articulation Manner of articulation Nasals Most sounds are produced orally – with the velum raised so that no air goes into the nasal cavity. Sounds made by air going through nasal tract, when the velum is lowered. m, n, m, Manner of articulation Manner of articulation ©1995 by Patricia Ashby, Speech Sounds. London: Routledge. Nasals Nasals Bilabial m Place of Articulation Alveolar n Velar Stops (orals) vs. Nasals Stops (orals) vs. Nasals ©1995 by Patricia Ashby, Speech Sounds. London: Routledge. Manner of articulation Manner of articulation Approximants Consonants whose articulation is strongly influenced by the following vowel sound. Glides /w/ as in wet and /y/ as in you. Liquids /l/ and /r/ Yule calls /h/ an approximant, but most people call it a fricative. Manner of Articulation Manner of Articulation Approximants /w/ and /y/ are called semi­vowels or glides because they are produced with the tongue moving or gliding to or from the position of a nearby vowel. /l/ is formed by letting the airflow around the sides of the tongue as it makes contact with the alveolar ridge. /r/ is formed with the tongue tip raised and curled back behind the alveolar ridge. Approximants Approximants Bilabial w Place of Articulation Alveolar r l Alveo-palatal y IPA IPA International Phonetic Alphabet IPA (p. 45) IPA (p. 45) Flap Flap / / In American English, occurs in place of /t/ or /d/, when they occur in the middle of a word, between vowel, and when the first syllable is stressed. We produce a flap in words during casual conversation. The tongue tip hits the alveolar ridge for an instant. latter (sounds like ladder) little (sounds like liddle) Glottal Stop Glottal Stop Glottis (space between the vocal cords) is closed completely but briefly and then released. Its common in British English (bottle) and most of us produce it in the middle of ‘oh oh’. The IPA symbol is a question mark with a line across the bottom rather than a period below. Vowels Vowels Not made by blocking air flow, produced with a relatively open vocal tract – a free flow of air. All vowels are voiced. Shaped by position of tongue and lips Description = position of tongue Height Frontness Vowels Vowels In terms of articulation, we divide the mouth into front, central and back areas and high, mid and low areas. We use phonetic symbols because there are many different spellings for each English vowel sound. Vowels (p. 48) Vowels (p. 48) front central back i high u I mid low e ε æ o ^ a Vowels Vowels High front vowels /i/ as in feet, see, eat, key /I/ as in fit, hit, myth The front of the tongue is in a raised position close to the front of the mouth. Vowels Vowels Mid front vowels /e/ in fate, tail, great, weight /ε/ in pet, said, dead Your tongue tip is still in the front of your mouth, but it is held about halfway between the roof and the floor of your mouth. Vowels Vowels Low front vowels /æ/ as in fat, sat, ban The tongue is near the front of the floor of the mouth. Vowels Vowels Mid central vowels /^/ as in suds, blood, tough // as in sofa, above, afford, wanted, a – called the schwa. These two are almost the same vowel. /^/ is used when its in a stressed syllable and // when its an unstressed syllable. Central vowels, the schwa (unstressed version) is produced higher in the mouth. Vowels Vowels High back vowels /u/ in suit, two, glue // in soot, put, could, foot The back of the tongue is raised when you produce these vowels – high back vowels. Vowels Vowels Mid back vowels /o/ in sewed, no, though // in sought, raw, fall, caught The back of your tongue is raised but not as high during the production of these two. Vowels Vowels Low back vowel /a/ in hot, cot, father, body The tongue is at the bottom of the mouth and is pulled back a bit. You can probably feel the difference in tongue position for the low front vowel, in ‘hat’ versus the low back vowel in ‘hot’. Vowels (p. 48) Vowels (p. 48) front central back i high u I mid low e ε æ o ^ a Mistake in book Mistake in book Page 48 – it says that the vowel sounds in ‘hot’ and ‘hat’ are both low back vowels. The vowel in ‘hot’ is the low back vowel /a/, but the vowel in ‘hat’ is the low front vowel / æ/ the same as in ‘fat’. Dipthongs Dipthongs Vowel made by starting tongue in one position and then ending in another position. Different from regular vowels /a/ as in ‘cot’ ­ the tongue stays in one place for the vowel. Think combined vowel sounds. Begin with a vowel and end with an approximant /w/ or /y/. Diphthongs Diphthongs [ay] buy, tight. Produced by starting your tongue in the /a/ position (low back) and moving to /i/ position (high front). Diphthongs Diphthongs [aw] cow, pout We produce it by starting in the /a/ position (low back) and moving to the /o/ position (mid back). Diphthongs Diphthongs [ y] boy, toil Produced by starting in the / / position (mid back) and moving to the /y/ position (high alveo­palatal). ...
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