Unformatted text preview: Study of Language
Study of Language
Chapter 6: The Sound Patterns of Language Phonetics
Phonetics is the study of characteristics of speech sounds. Articulatory phonetics is the study of how speech sounds are articulated. Variability Variability Interspeaker variability: any two people’s productions of a given speech sound will differ due to physical differences in their vocal tracts Intraspeaker variability: any individual produces a given speech sound differently in different situations Phonology
Phonology Phonology: description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language. It is concerned with the abstract aspects of language sounds rather than how they are physically articulated.
In phonology, distinguish between phonemes and phones. Phonemes
Phonemes /t/ = a ‘t’ written between slashes (virgules) is called a phoneme, which is a meaning
distinguishing sound type in a particular language.
Phonemic transcription: process of transcribing a word using consonant and vowel symbols and putting them between slashes Phones
Phones A ‘t’ written between square brackets [t] is a phone, which is a version/token of a phoneme that occurs in a particular linguistic environment. Phonetic transcription: process of transcribing a word using this system, provides greater detail than phonemic transcription Phonemes
Phonemes /p/ and /b/ are two separate phonemes of English, meaning distinguishing sound type Minimal pair: words are identical except for a contrast in one phoneme; ‘pop’ and ‘bop’
Minimal set: when a group of words are differentiated from one another by changing one phoneme; ‘big,’ ‘pig,’ ‘rig’ Phones and allophones
Phones and allophones ‘tar’ vs ‘star’ example
Aspirated vs Unaspirated
Allophones: groupings of closely related sounds that are all versions of the same sound If you substitute one sound for another in a word and there is a change of meaning, then those two sounds are different phonemes.
If there is no change in meaning accompanying that sound change (you don’t get a different word) then those two sounds are just two different phones = allophones. Allophones Examples
Allophones Examples Tim
Phonotactics Constraints on the sequence or position of phonemes in a particular language.
Phontactic constraints dictate the set of permissible phoneme sequences in a language.
Phonotactic constraints don’t apply to a single phoneme but to the larger phonological unit – the syllable. Syllables
Constraints V ‘I’ /ay/ CVC
‘han’ /h æ n/ 1st syllable of handle CCVC ‘grin’ /g r I n/ 1st syllable of grinning CCCVC ‘strap’ /s t r æ p/ 2nd syll of bootstrap VCC
‘eggs’ /ε g z/ 4 letters but only 3 phonemes Syllables
Syllables Must contain a vowel or vowellike sound
Rime: obligatory and consists of a vowel (nucleus) and any following consonants (coda) Syllable structure
σ onset rhyme [rime] nucleus coda Syllables
Syllables Open syllable: has an onset and a nucleus but no coda – ‘me’.
Closed syllable: has a coda – ‘hat’. Clusters
Clusters Consonant cluster: two or more consonants in a row /s t/ in /s t a p/ (stop). English allows 3 consonants in a cluster, but there are rules:
The first consonant is always /s/. The second consonant is a voiceless stop /p/, /t/or /k/. The third consonant is an approximant /r/, /l/ or /w/. Coarticulation
Coarticulation Coarticulation: process of making one sound almost at the same time as the next Effects of coarticulation: assimilation and elision Assimilation
Assimilation Assimilation : an aspect or characteristic of a phoneme is taken or copied by an adjacent phoneme.
2 types: Anticipatory and Perseverative/ Carryover Assimilation
Assimilation Anticipatory assimilation goes from R to L.
Perseverative/carryover assimilation goes from L to R. Elision
Elision Elision: the omission of a sound segment. ...
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- Fall '08
- Phoneme, Phonotactics, permissible phoneme sequences