Ch_6 - Study of Language Study of Language COMD 2050...

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Unformatted text preview: Study of Language Study of Language COMD 2050 Chapter 6: The Sound Patterns of Language Phonetics Phonetics Phonetics is the study of characteristics of speech sounds. Articulatory phonetics is the study of how speech sounds are articulated. Variability Variability Interspeaker variability: any two people’s productions of a given speech sound will differ due to physical differences in their vocal tracts Intraspeaker variability: any individual produces a given speech sound differently in different situations Phonology Phonology Phonology: description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language. It is concerned with the abstract aspects of language sounds rather than how they are physically articulated. In phonology, distinguish between phonemes and phones. Phonemes Phonemes /t/ = a ‘t’ written between slashes (virgules) is called a phoneme, which is a meaning­ distinguishing sound type in a particular language. Phonemic transcription: process of transcribing a word using consonant and vowel symbols and putting them between slashes Phones Phones A ‘t’ written between square brackets [t] is a phone, which is a version/token of a phoneme that occurs in a particular linguistic environment. Phonetic transcription: process of transcribing a word using this system, provides greater detail than phonemic transcription Phonemes Phonemes /p/ and /b/ are two separate phonemes of English, meaning distinguishing sound type Minimal pair: words are identical except for a contrast in one phoneme; ‘pop’ and ‘bop’ Minimal set: when a group of words are differentiated from one another by changing one phoneme; ‘big,’ ‘pig,’ ‘rig’ Phones and allophones Phones and allophones ‘tar’ vs ‘star’ example Aspirated vs Unaspirated Allophones: groupings of closely related sounds that are all versions of the same sound If you substitute one sound for another in a word and there is a change of meaning, then those two sounds are different phonemes. If there is no change in meaning accompanying that sound change (you don’t get a different word) then those two sounds are just two different phones = allophones. Allophones Examples Allophones Examples Tim Stem Hit Betty Writer Pan Pat Phonotactics Phonotactics Constraints on the sequence or position of phonemes in a particular language. Phontactic constraints dictate the set of permissible phoneme sequences in a language. Phonotactic constraints don’t apply to a single phoneme but to the larger phonological unit – the syllable. Syllables Syllables Constraints V ‘I’ /ay/ CVC ‘han’ /h æ n/ ­ 1st syllable of handle CCVC ‘grin’ /g r I n/ ­ 1st syllable of grinning CCCVC ‘strap’ /s t r æ p/ ­ 2nd syll of bootstrap VCC ‘eggs’ /ε g z/ ­ 4 letters but only 3 phonemes Syllables Syllables Must contain a vowel or vowel­like sound Onset: optional Rime: obligatory and consists of a vowel (nucleus) and any following consonants (coda) Syllable structure Syllable structure σ onset rhyme [rime] nucleus coda Syllables Syllables Open syllable: has an onset and a nucleus but no coda – ‘me’. Closed syllable: has a coda – ‘hat’. Clusters Clusters Consonant cluster: two or more consonants in a row ­ /s t/ in /s t a p/ (stop). English allows 3 consonants in a cluster, but there are rules: The first consonant is always /s/. The second consonant is a voiceless stop /p/, /t/or /k/. The third consonant is an approximant /r/, /l/ or /w/. Co­articulation Co­articulation Co­articulation: process of making one sound almost at the same time as the next Effects of co­articulation: assimilation and elision Assimilation Assimilation Assimilation : an aspect or characteristic of a phoneme is taken or copied by an adjacent phoneme. 2 types: Anticipatory and Perseverative/ Carryover Assimilation Assimilation Anticipatory assimilation goes from R to L. Perseverative/carryover assimilation goes from L to R. Elision Elision Elision: the omission of a sound segment. ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course COMD 2050 taught by Professor Collins during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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