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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 8
Morphology Morphology: the study of the forms or structure of words and their parts. Morphemes
Morphemes The smallest unit of meaning
A minimal unit that can have a dictionary meaning and a grammatical meaning
A minimal unit that has constant meaning (most of the time) and definite structure (most of the time) Morphemes
Morphology A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning.
Every word has at least one morpheme.
Morpheme does not equal syllable. Morphology
Morphology Dogs = Dog + s, 2 morphemes, 1 syllable
Kissed = Kiss + ed, 2 morphemes, 1 syllable
Men’s = man + plural + possessive, 3 morphemes, 1 syllable. Morphology
Un = a morpheme
These morphemes have definite structure – not in random order. Unhappy
“un” can only attach to certain types of morhphemes (only adjectives, not nouns). Undog Undoor Unrug Unhappy Unlucky Morphology
Tourists contains 3 morphemes: “Tour” means to travel or visit. “ist” is a morpheme that attaches to a verb and turns into a noun meaning “one who does whatever action the verb indicates”. “ist” changes the meaning from “to travel” to “one who travels”. “s” has a grammatical meaning and changes the word to a plural noun. Morphology
Morphology There is another difference between the morphemes “tour” and “s” besides the fact that one has a dictionary meaning and the other a grammatical meaning.
“Tour” can stand alone as a word, but “s” cannot.
We need to make the distinction between two types of morphemes: free and bound. Morphology
Can the morpheme stand alone? Yes = free (CAN be) Free morphemes: morphemes that can stand by themselves as single words. Mother Yellow Mothers, yellowing 2 types of free morphemes: lexical and functional Free morphemes
Free morphemes Free morphemes: morphemes which can stand alone as words Lexical morphemes: have a sense/meaning in and of themselves – carry the content of our messages Nouns, Verbs, Adjectives, Adverbs
Open class of words Functional/ grammatical morphemes: no meaning in and of themselves – express the relationship between lexical morphemes Conjunctions, Prepositions, Articles, Pronouns Closed class of words Bound morphemes
Bound morphemes Bound morphemes: morphemes that can’t stand alone as words and must be affixed to some other form; the basic word that the bound morpheme attaches to is called the stem Derivational: used to create new words li, ness, ful, less, ment, pre, co, un Inflectional: do not change the grammatical category of the stem Plural, possessive, present tense, progressive, past tense, past participle, comparative, superlative Inflectional morphemes
Agentive morpheme (“er” in “mover”) is a derivational morpheme that has the same form as the comparative morpheme, which is inflectional.
You can tell the difference by noting that agentive “er” adds to a verb and changes it into a noun (derivational), while the comparative “er” adds to an adjective like “strong” but it remains an adjective (stronger), so the comparative is inflectional rather than derivational (does not change grammatical category of stem). Bound morphemes
Another important idea about bound morphemes is that if a derivational suffix and an inflectional suffix are added to the same stem, the derivational suffix is added first, then the inflectional suffix is added. Teach + er (agentive derivational) + s (plural inflectional) Teach + s (plural inflectional) + er (agentive derivational Morphology recap
2 main types of morphemes: free and bound.
Free morphemes: can stand alone – 2 types Lexical morphemes: carry content (boat, school) Functional morphemes: indicate relationships between words (on, in, and, the). Morphology recap
Bound morphemes: cannot stand alone as words – 2 types. Derivational morphemes: change the grammatical category of the stem they are added to (work + er, child + ish, play + ful) Inflectional morphemes: don’t change the grammatical category (cute + est, play + s). But, there are still some problems… Morphology
Morphology “Reduce” seems like prefix “re” + “duce”, but the stem “duce” is not a free morpheme.
There are two types of stems: bound stems: stems that are bound morphemes “ceive” in “receive”
free stems: stems that are free morphemes “happy” in “unhappy” Morphology
Morphology Morpheme: a meaning or function distinguishing word form in a particular language (like phonemes) – example: the plural morpheme.
Morphs: versions used to realize morphemes (like phones) – example “s” for plural, “ed” for past tense, “ing” for progressive.
Allomorphs: two or more versions of the same morpheme, alternate forms of a morpheme (like allophones). Verb forms
Verb forms Main Verb
Modal Verb: can, could, shall, should, may, might, must
Auxiliary “do” Sentences
Sentences Simple sentence: contains only one clause.
“Allie chased the cat.”
Complex sentence: more than one clause.
“Allie chased the cat because he drives her crazy.”
Active sentence: a sentence in which the subject is the doer of the action.
“Allie ate the hamburger.” V. “The hamburger was eaten by Allie.” – passive sentence ...
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- Fall '08