Ch_10 - Chapter 10 Chapter 10 Syntax Syntax Syntax Syntax:...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 Chapter 10 Syntax Syntax Syntax Syntax: structure and ordering of components within a sentence. Generative Grammar Generative Grammar Noam Chomsky: his theory was originally called transformational­generative grammar and is now called minimalism Generative grammar – a grammar that employs a set of explicit rules to produce an infinite number of sentences. Generative Grammar Generative Grammar A rule of generative grammar is similar to a mathematical expression or a formula. NP Art (Adj) N Phrase structure rules Properties of grammar Properties of grammar “All and only” criterion: grammar must generate all the grammatical sentences and only the grammatical sentences Finite number of rules but capable of generating infinite well­formed sentences Recursion: the capacity to be applied more than once in generating a structure Recursion Recursion Prepositional phrases can be recursive Immediate Constituent Analysis can show recursion [The boy [who left] is my brother.] [The girl knew [(that)] the boy left.]] Right­branching recursion I want the book by the computer on the desk in the study. [The Weather Channel said [that the hurricane hit Louisiana.]] Center embedding [The hurricane [that hit Louisiana] caused damage.] Syntactic theory Syntactic theory 2 other facts about language that a syntactic theory has to explain are: 2 sentences that look different can have the same meaning 2 sentences that look the same can have different meanings Surface and deep structure Surface and deep structure Surface structure (SS): the actual syntactic form of the sentence – the string of words in the sentence. Deep structure (DS): an abstract level of structural organization in which all the elements determining structural interpretation are represented, underlying meaning is represented structurally Transformational rules Transformational rules Rules that change the order of the units in the deep structure of the sentence, important for converting deep structures into surface structures. Ex: affix hopping and the passive transformation Transformational rules convert the deep structure into a surface structure, a sentence ready to be spoken. Structural ambiguity Structural ambiguity Structural ambiguity: the fact that two sentences having the same form can have different meanings The distinction between deep and surface structure also allows us to account for structural ambiguity. “Annie whacked a man with an umbrella.” Symbols used in syntactic Symbols used in syntactic description Abbreviations for parts of speech and other constituents of sentences: S, N, NP, PN, Art, Adj, V, VP, Adv, Prep, PP, Pro = consists of ( )= optional constituent { }=select only one of these constituents * = ungrammatical Phrase structure rules Phrase structure rules The phrase structure rules that we will use are on the bottom of p106. S NP VP NP {Art (Adj) N} {PN } {Pro } {that } VP {V NP (PP) (Adv)} {Vb Part NP } V {Vb Part} PP Prep NP Tree diagrams Tree diagrams Used to show the hierarchical organization of the labeled and bracketed constituents Tree diagrams Tree diagrams “the dog” NP Art N the = article dog = noun NP (highest node) / \ Art N The NP is higher up then the article and the noun. Tree diagrams Tree diagrams S / \ NP VP / \ / \ Art N V NP / \ Art N the dog ate a bone Rules Rules Phrase structure rules tell us what the constituents of the sentence are but they don’t tell us which words we can plug in for those constituents. Lexical rules: specify which words can be used as nouns, verbs, articles, etc… (pg 107), but these are incomplete so linguists refer to a mental lexicon, which is like a dictionary Rules Rules *Boy the Mary saw. The order of the constituents here is – N Art N V The sequence N followed by Art does not occur in our phrase structure rules so we know its ungrammatical. Rules Rules The small boy saw George with a crazy dog recently. S NP VP NP Art Adj N VP V NP PP Adv NP PN PP Prep NP NP Art Adj N Think recursion !!!!! Rules Rules Rules need to allow for recursion because sometime we have sentences inside of sentences. Phrase structure rules have no recursive elements and you need to be able to repeat some symbols on the right side of the arrow. Rules Rules Example with recursion ­ “Cathy thought that Mary helped George.” S NP VP, NP PN, VP V NP, NP “that” S, S NP VP, NP PN, VP V NP, NP PN So, its recursive because we have a sentence, the complement “that Mary helped George” inside the overall sentence. Rules Rules VP rule allows for recursion­ “John said the pledges thought the beer tasted flat.” S NP VP, NP PN, VP V S, S NP VP, NP Art N, VP V S, S NP VP, NP Art N, VP V Adv This is double recursion because there are two sentences inside the overall sentence. Rules Rules We need transformational rules in addition to phrase structure rules to explain the fact that 2 sentences with different forms can have the same meaning. In general, transformational rules are rules that change the order of constituents in the basic sentence structures specified by phrase structure rules. Rules Rules Think of a transformational rule as breaking off a branch of the tree diagram and attaching it somewhere else in the structure. Adverb movement and participle movement are two transformational rules. “I drove the car to LSU yesterday.” “Yesterday, I drove the car to LSU.” Both sentences are grammatical, but phrase structure rules only allow for the first one. Rules Rules “I drove the car to LSU yesterday.” “Yesterday, I drove the car to LSU.” The deep structure for both sentences is: I­PAST­drive­the­car­to­LSU­yesterday. Tree diagram PAST­drive = affix hopping = transformational rule Rules Rules “I drove the car to LSU yesterday.” “Yesterday, I drove the car to LSU.” In order to generate the second sentence, apply a transformation called adverb movement that says remove the adverb from the verb phrase and reattach it to S in sentence initial position. Rules Rules VP V Part NP was one of the options for the structure of a VP. Part = participle. A participle looks like a preposition but it is not because it goes with the verb. Rules Rules “He turned down the job.” down=part “He turned down the alley.” down=prep How can you tell the difference? Rules Rules “Down the alley, he turned.” – grammatical If it’s a preposition, then it is the beginning of a prepositional phrase and it can be moved along with its object (the following NP) to a different part of the sentence. So, ‘down’ in “He turned down the alley” is a preposition. Rules Rules If it’s a participle and you try to move it together with the following NP, you get an ungrammatical structure. “down the job, he turned” is ungrammatical so ‘down’ in “He turned down the job” is a participle. Participles can’t move together with the following NP, but they can move by themselves to the other side of the following NP – “he turned the job down.” – participle movement and affix hopping (inflection of the verb) are the transformational rules applied here. Rules Rules Phrase structure rules tell us that a prepositional phrase has a preposition followed by a NP, so a preposition cannot be moved to the other side of the following NP. *He turned the alley down. Rules Rules Derivation of­ “He turned down the job.” “He turned the job down.” Both mean the same thing – have the same deep structure. The second sentence has participle movement transformation. ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course COMD 2050 taught by Professor Collins during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online