Ch_11 - Chapter 11 Chapter 11 Semantics Semantics Semantics...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11 Chapter 11 Semantics Semantics Semantics Semantics: the study of the conventional meaning conveyed by the use of words, phrases, and sentences of a given language Meaning vs Association Meaning vs Association Conceptual meaning: covers the basic, essential components of meaning conveyed by the literal use of the word. Associations: words that come to mind when we hear a word but which are not part of the definition or meaning of the word. Approaches to word meanings Approaches to word meanings Yule says that part of the job of semantics is to account for the fact that some syntactically correct sentences can be meaningless or strange. The hamburger ate the man. Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. Semantic features Semantic features Selectional restriction: the verb selects only certain kinds of subjects. Semantic feature analysis: the way of describing the meanings of words in terms of categories that they do and do not belong to Semantic roles Semantic roles Agent: performs the action, the doer of the action Theme: entity involved in or affected by some action, entity being experienced Instrument: what is used by the agent in performing the action Experiencer: the person who has a feeling, a perception, a state, or a belief. Semantic roles Semantic roles 3 semantic roles that are used to describe where something is, where it was, and where it is going to­ Location: where an entity or event is, or takes place Source: where an entity moves from or where it came from, the person who has some entity initially Goal: where an entity moves to or where it is going, or who receives or gets some entity from someone or somewhere (recipient) Lexical relations Lexical relations Lexical relations: describe the meanings of words in terms of how they are related to other words. Lexical relations Lexical relations Synonymy Synonyms: two or more forms with very closely related meanings Antonyms: two forms with opposite meanings Gradable antonyms: used in comparative constructions, negative of one member does not imply the other Non­gradable antonyms: not used in comparative constructions, negative of one member does imply the other Reversives: “do the reverse of” pairs Lexical Relations Lexical Relations Hyponymy (inclusion): situation in which the meaning of one word is included in the meaning of another word Hyponym: word whose meaning contains the entire meaning of the other word, which is called the superordinate Co­hyponym: two terms that share the same superordinate, occupy the same level in the hierarchy and are directly dominated by the same node Lexical relations Lexical relations Prototype: best example of a given category Prototypicality is not set in stone, it varies due to individual experiences, cultural differences. Stereotype: list of characteristics that describe a prototype Lexical relations Lexical relations Homophones: two words that are spelled differently but pronounced the same Homonymy: a single word that has two or more unrelated meanings Polysemy: one form having multiple meanings which are all related by extension Collocation: the fact that certain words frequently occur together Truth Value Truth Value Analytic sentences: (linguistic truths) sentences that are necessarily true because of the meanings of the words they contain Contradictory sentences: (linguistic falsities) sentences that are necessarily false because of the meanings of the words they contain Synthetic sentences: (empirical truths) sentences that may be true or false depending on how the world is but are not true or false simply because of the words they contain ...
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