Unformatted text preview: Chapter 11
Semantics Semantics: the study of the conventional meaning conveyed by the use of words, phrases, and sentences of a given language Meaning vs Association
Meaning vs Association Conceptual meaning: covers the basic, essential components of meaning conveyed by the literal use of the word.
Associations: words that come to mind when we hear a word but which are not part of the definition or meaning of the word. Approaches to word meanings
Approaches to word meanings Yule says that part of the job of semantics is to account for the fact that some syntactically correct sentences can be meaningless or strange.
The hamburger ate the man.
Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. Semantic features
Semantic features Selectional restriction: the verb selects only certain kinds of subjects.
Semantic feature analysis: the way of describing the meanings of words in terms of categories that they do and do not belong to Semantic roles
Semantic roles Agent: performs the action, the doer of the action
Theme: entity involved in or affected by some action, entity being experienced
Instrument: what is used by the agent in performing the action
Experiencer: the person who has a feeling, a perception, a state, or a belief. Semantic roles
3 semantic roles that are used to describe where something is, where it was, and where it is going to Location: where an entity or event is, or takes place Source: where an entity moves from or where it came from, the person who has some entity initially Goal: where an entity moves to or where it is going, or who receives or gets some entity from someone or somewhere (recipient) Lexical relations
Lexical relations Lexical relations: describe the meanings of words in terms of how they are related to other words. Lexical relations
Synonymy Synonyms: two or more forms with very closely related meanings Antonyms: two forms with opposite meanings Gradable antonyms: used in comparative constructions, negative of one member does not imply the other
Nongradable antonyms: not used in comparative constructions, negative of one member does imply the other
Reversives: “do the reverse of” pairs Lexical Relations
Lexical Relations Hyponymy (inclusion): situation in which the meaning of one word is included in the meaning of another word
Hyponym: word whose meaning contains the entire meaning of the other word, which is called the superordinate
Cohyponym: two terms that share the same superordinate, occupy the same level in the hierarchy and are directly dominated by the same node Lexical relations
Lexical relations Prototype: best example of a given category
Prototypicality is not set in stone, it varies due to individual experiences, cultural differences.
Stereotype: list of characteristics that describe a prototype Lexical relations
Lexical relations Homophones: two words that are spelled differently but pronounced the same
Homonymy: a single word that has two or more unrelated meanings
Polysemy: one form having multiple meanings which are all related by extension
Collocation: the fact that certain words frequently occur together Truth Value
Truth Value Analytic sentences: (linguistic truths) sentences that are necessarily true because of the meanings of the words they contain
Contradictory sentences: (linguistic falsities) sentences that are necessarily false because of the meanings of the words they contain
Synthetic sentences: (empirical truths) sentences that may be true or false depending on how the world is but are not true or false simply because of the words they contain ...
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- Fall '08
- association, Yule, Prototypicality, Association, Reversives