Unformatted text preview: Chapter 13
Discourse Analysis Discourse Analysis
Discourse Analysis How do we make sense of texts that we read?
How do we understand what speakers mean despite what they say? (How do we interpret ambiguous or unclear statements embedded within texts or conversations?)
What makes us think that one text is coherent or connected while another is incoherent or jumbled? Cohesion
Coherence Nonliteral language: meaning something other than the literal meaning of our words.
Her: That’s the telephone.
Him: I’m in the bathtub.
There aren’t any cohesive ties, but it’s a normal conversation. If we analyze the conversation along the lines of speech acts, we can show how they are getting across more than what they say. Conversational interaction
Conversational interaction Turntaking: only one person speaks at a time and turns are pretty much continuous.
Completion points: the signals or ways that a speaker indicates that she has finished (pausing at the end of a phrase, asking a question, etc…) Conversational interaction
Ways speaker can hold the floor by avoiding normal completion points:
Use hesitation markers Throw in extra connector words Pause in the middle of the message Cooperative principle of Cooperative principle of Conversation Grice’s maxims: Quantity: make your contribution as informative as is required – no more, no less – be to the point. Quality: do not say that which you believe to be false or for which you lack evidence – be truthful Relation: be relevant Manner: be clear, brief, orderly. Cooperative principle
Cooperative principle Implicature: a proposition that is implied by an utterance but is not part of the utterance and doesn’t follow as a necessary consequence of the utterance.
Entailment: a necessary consequence of an utterance. Sentence A entails sentence B if the truth of sentence A insures the truth of sentence B and if sentence B is false it insures that sentence A is false. Implicature
A: Uncle Bill is coming over for dinner tonight.
B: I guess we’d better lock up the liquor. Entailment
Entailment A: Paul was driven home by Liz.
B: Liz drove Paul home.
A: Bill suffered a fatal heart attack.
B: Bill is dead.
A: John fried the fish.
B: John cooked the fish.
A: I have a test tomorrow.
B: I will study tonight. Background knowledge
Background knowledge Schema: a conventional knowledge structure that exists in longterm memory.
Script: a dynamic schema in which a series of conventional actions take place ...
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- Fall '08
- Implicature, entailment, conversational interaction, Cooperative principle