Ch_13 - Chapter 13 Chapter 13 Discourse Analysis Discourse...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 13 Chapter 13 Discourse Analysis Discourse Analysis Discourse Analysis How do we make sense of texts that we read? How do we understand what speakers mean despite what they say? (How do we interpret ambiguous or unclear statements embedded within texts or conversations?) What makes us think that one text is coherent or connected while another is incoherent or jumbled? Cohesion Cohesion Cohesion Cohesive links Coherence Coherence Coherence Non­literal language: meaning something other than the literal meaning of our words. Her: That’s the telephone. Him: I’m in the bathtub. Her: Okay There aren’t any cohesive ties, but it’s a normal conversation. If we analyze the conversation along the lines of speech acts, we can show how they are getting across more than what they say. Conversational interaction Conversational interaction Turn­taking: only one person speaks at a time and turns are pretty much continuous. Completion points: the signals or ways that a speaker indicates that she has finished (pausing at the end of a phrase, asking a question, etc…) Conversational interaction Conversational interaction Ways speaker can hold the floor by avoiding normal completion points: Use hesitation markers Throw in extra connector words Pause in the middle of the message Co­operative principle of Co­operative principle of Conversation Grice’s maxims: Quantity: make your contribution as informative as is required – no more, no less – be to the point. Quality: do not say that which you believe to be false or for which you lack evidence – be truthful Relation: be relevant Manner: be clear, brief, orderly. Co­operative principle Co­operative principle Implicature: a proposition that is implied by an utterance but is not part of the utterance and doesn’t follow as a necessary consequence of the utterance. Entailment: a necessary consequence of an utterance. Sentence A entails sentence B if the truth of sentence A insures the truth of sentence B and if sentence B is false it insures that sentence A is false. Implicature Implicature A: Uncle Bill is coming over for dinner tonight. B: I guess we’d better lock up the liquor. Entailment Entailment A: Paul was driven home by Liz. B: Liz drove Paul home. A: Bill suffered a fatal heart attack. B: Bill is dead. A: John fried the fish. B: John cooked the fish. A: I have a test tomorrow. B: I will study tonight. Background knowledge Background knowledge Schema: a conventional knowledge structure that exists in long­term memory. Script: a dynamic schema in which a series of conventional actions take place ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course COMD 2050 taught by Professor Collins during the Fall '08 term at LSU.

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