Ch_17 - Chapter 17 Chapter 17 Second Language Acquisition...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 17 Chapter 17 Second Language Acquisition Second language acquisition & Second language acquisition & learning L1= learner’s native language L2= second language you learn Acquisition and learning Acquisition and learning Acquisition: the gradual development of ability in a language by using it naturally in communicative situations. Your native language is acquired. Learning: a conscious process of accumulating knowledge of the vocabulary and grammar of a language. A second language that you study in school is acquired. Acquisition Acquisition Language is unique. There is no other system of knowledge that we can learn better at age 2 or 3 than at 15 or 25. Giving us another reason to think that there is a genetic predisposition to acquire language during that critical period from birth to puberty. Barriers to second language learning Barriers to second language learning Lack of need: you already have a native language that meets your daily communicative requirements, so the urgency, the practical need driving first language acquisition is not there. Lack of time: trying to learn a second language is difficult if you can only devote a few hours per week. Language learning Language learning Affective filter: the name of a barrier to language acquisition (fear of making a mistake, lack of motivation, stress, etc) that results in negative feelings or experiences Methods Methods 1. Grammar­translation Treats the language like an academic subject Emphasizes written rather than spoken language Involves memorization of vocabulary and grammatical rules Methods Methods 2. Audiological method developed in the 1950s and led to all the “teach yourself” language tapes Emphasizes spoken language Systematic presentation of language structures in the form of drills that the listener repeats Boring and no natural communicative interaction Methods Methods 3. Communicative approaches The most modern methods Emphasizes functional use of language rather than learning the grammatical rules. Learner Learner Along with the communicative approach, there has been a shift in the focus of second language learning away from the teacher and the method to the learner and the process of acquisition. One reflection of this shift in emphasis is toleration of errors. Learner Learner The old approaches stressed avoiding errors, but in the new approaches errors are seen as evidence about how the learner is learning. Errors are not barriers to progress. Learner Learner One common process in second language learning is transfer of expressions or structures from the native language to the second language. Some errors might be due to transfer of expressions from L1 to L2. Transfer can be beneficial or detrimental depending upon how closely related the two are. Learner Learner Two types of transfer: Positive transfer: when a similarity between the two languages helps with second language learning. Negative transfer/interference: when a difference between the two languages hinders second language learning. Interlanguage Interlanguage Interlanguage: a system of structures used by an adult learning a second language that contains features of both L1 and L2. Thought to be the basis of second language learning in adults Motivation Motivation Motivation to learn a second language is a big factor in your success. A language­learning situation that encourages success and accomplishment must seems more helpful than one that focuses on errors and corrections. Input and output Input and output Input: the language that the learner is exposed to. The input has to be comprehensible to aid the person in learning the language. Foreigner talk has a simplified syntax and vocabulary, like caretaker speech, to help the learner understand the message (“English class, you like it?”) Input and output Input and output Negotiated input: L2 material that the learner can acquire in interaction through requests for clarification and active attention being focused on what is said. Drawing and gestures are often useful when a native speaker and a non­native speaker are trying to negotiate the meaning of a word. Input and output Input and output Output: L2 utterances produced by the learner. The opportunity to produce comprehensible output in meaningful interactions seems to be a crucial factor in the learner’s development. Communicative competence Communicative competence There are 3 aspects of communicative competence in the second language: 1. 2. 3. Grammatical competence: the accurate use of words and structures in the second language. Sociolinguistic competence: the ability to interpret or produce language appropriately (pragmatic factors) Strategic competence: the ability to organize a message effectively and to compensate for difficulties. ...
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