Lecture16 - Policymaking-student - PolicyProcess&Change...

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Policy Process & Change Matisoff POL 1101
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Introduction Types of policies When does policy change occur? Policy making process Rational decision-makers Concentration of costs and benefits Theories of interest groups American Institutionalism Macro-structures of institutions Theories of Congress Policy monopolies / Advocacy Coalitions Policy Windows
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Three types of policies Distributive Development projects “Pork” / earmarks Redistributive policies Transfer resources from 1 sector of society to other Social Security; Medicare; AFDC / TANF; Food Stamps; unemployment benefits; farm subsidies; import tariffs, etc. Tax policy Regulatory Policies Environmental regulations; financial regulations; transportation regulations
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Policy tools How do we address policy problems? Incentives / disincentives (sticks & carrots) Subsidies, penalties, taxes – market based ways to change behavior of targets 18.4 cents per gallon tax on gasoline (federal) “Sin taxes” 1.9 cents per kwh subsidy for wind energy generation Loan subsidies for college students (HOPE) Set rules – “command and control” Thou shalt not dump poison in the river without a permit Thou shalt not drive a car that emits CO beyond xx concentration
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Policy as Political Activity Process Model Problem Identification Agenda Setting Policy Formulation Policy Legitimation (selection of alternatives) Policy Implementation Policy Evaluation
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Policy-making model: Agenda Setting Agenda Setting Role of media, interest groups, policy entrepreneurs Courts, president can set agenda Drawing attention to a policy problem Making a policy problem a political issue Issue definition & framing How an issue is defined can have huge impact on opinion, and how its addressed
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Policy Formulation Policy formulation How to best address a policy problem Congress – through legislation Bureaucratic – Through rule-making process Judiciary – through judicial remedies President – through executive orders
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