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cog_intro_08 - Background August28,2008 CognitivePsychology...

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Cognitive Bases of Behavior   Introduction and Historical  Background August 28, 2008
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Cognitive Psychology Concerned with full range of psychological processes  from sensation to knowledge representation Dominated since 1970’s by the  information  processing model Domains experimental psychology cognitive neuropsychology                cognitive science cognitive neuroscience What does this have to do with clinical or counseling  or developmental or school psychology or speech  pathology or exercise physiology or…?
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Major topical research areas contributing to  contemporary cognitive psychology
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Key Themes/Continua in the Study of  Key Themes/Continua in the Study of  Cognitive Psychology Cognitive Psychology Nature v. nurture Rationalism v. empiricism Structures v. processes Domain generality v. domain specificity Internal v. external (ecological) validity Applied v. basic research Biological v. behavioral methods
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Structures vs. Processes Structures components  of cognitive apparatus that represent  the organization of mental entities are largely metaphorical and static examples:  filters, lexicons, storage systems, trees Processes systems of operations or functions that analyze,  transform, or change mental  events are active, dynamic examples:  inhibition, forgetting, encoding,  problem-solving
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Historical Antecedents Historical Antecedents Philosophy :   concerned with  understanding experience through  introspection - rational Physiology:   scientific understanding of  life-sustaining processes in living matter  - empirical
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Rationalism vs. Empiricism Plato:    theory of forms, reality resides not in  concrete objects, but in the abstract forms (ideas)  they represent - forerunner of rationalism; this idea  picked up again by  Descartes  in 17th century; idea of  innate knowledge Aristotle:    reality resides only in concrete world of  objects, abstract ideas are a derivation - forerunner of  empiricism; this idea picked up again by  Locke humans born without knowledge, experience writes  on the mind
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Structuralism vs. Functionalism Structuralism:   understand basic parts  (akin to anatomy) of the mind (e.g.,  Wundt) Functionalism:   understand basic  processes (akin to physiology) of the  mind (e.g., James)
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Contemporary Forms of Phrenology
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