language1_08 - Language I October 23, 2008 Why is Language...

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Unformatted text preview: Language I October 23, 2008 Why is Language Important? • Represents unique form of abstraction in human species • Language influences perception and memory • Relevant to the form and manner of information storage • Relevance to thinking and problem­solving is unquestioned • Chief means of human communication Key Terminology • Phonology: (the way sounds function in the language) basic unit = phoneme – single speech sound – English has about 45; 9 make up half our words – dimensions: voiced (“a”); unvoiced (“s”); fricatives (“sh”), plosives (“t”); place of articulation (palate v. lips) • Morphology: (study of the internal structure of words) basic unit = morpheme – smallest unit of meaning (words, parts of words, etc.) – free (e.g., “old”, “the”) vs. bound (e.g., “er”, “ist”) – over 100,000 words formed by morpheme combinations • Semantics: (study of meaning) – denotation vs. connotation – e.g., “heart” – words as economic labels; link between language and concepts • Syntax: (study of rules that govern combination of morphemes in phrases and sentences; interdependency) – prescriptive vs. descriptive grammar – “Daddy, what did you bring that book that I don’t want to be read to out of up for”? Linguistic Relativity • Whorf (1956) – Language determines or influences thinking • Miller and McNeill (1969) – Strong hypothesis • Language determines thinking – Weak hypothesis • Language influences perception – Weakest hypothesis • Language influences memory Evidence • Regional/cultural differences in language – Hanuxoo have 92 different names for various types of rice • Could be that language evolution enables fine distinctions among types of rice • Could be that different environmental conditions influence the things people think about • Colour categorisation – Heider (1972) – color categories are universal – Dani (2 colors) v. American errors similar – Failures to replicate (Roberson, Davies, and Davidoff, 2000) Influence of language (English vs. Berinmo) on choice of similar pairs of stimuli by English and Berinmo participants. Data from Roberson et al. (2000). Evaluation • Harley (2001, p. 87) – “There is now a considerable amount of evidence suggesting that linguistic factors can affect cognitive processes. Even colour perception and memory . . . show some influence of language.” • The evidence supports the weak and the weakest versions Language Comprehension Speech Perception • Input rapid (≈ 10 phonemes/sec) • “Non­invariance” ­ speech sounds affected by sounds which proceed and follow; also different voices • Segmentation problem ­ how to separate sounds in a continuous flow • Use of prosody • Definite left­hemisphere advantage Auditory Word Recognition: Basic Auditory Word Recognition: Basic Processes • Bottom­up: processing of individual phonemic features • Top­down: conceptual processing – phonemic restoration effect: • probably affects response bias, not sensitivity “the *eel was on the axle” ­ hear “wheel” “the *eel was on the shoe” ­ hear “heel” “the *eel was on the orange” ­ hear “peel” Theories of Auditory Word Recognition I Motor Theory of Speech Perception (Liberman et al., 1967) – during listening, listeners mimic articulatory movements of speaker and depend on this for recognition – Supported by PET studies showing ↑motor activation during speech perception – noninvariance is a problem, as is infant data • Cohort Theory (Marslen­Wilson & Tyler, 1980) – activation of word cohort as speech signal arrives – some activated words eliminated on basis of context; continues until “recognition point” is achieved – assumes that lexical, syntactic, and semantic information interact to analyze speech signal; context effects are probably late • e.g., “The police indicated that excessive SP­­­ was a factor in the fatal accident.” • Auditory Word Recognition: Theories II Auditory Word Recognition: Theories II • TRACE Model (McClelland, 1991) – three units of levels: features, phonemes, words – between­level connections excitatory – within­levels inhibitory – excitation in the network produces pattern, or “trace” of activation – recognized word is that which is highest among candidate words A Simple Feature-Detection Network Simple Auditory Word Recognition: Theories III Auditory Word Recognition: Theories III • Cognitive Neuropsychological Models – derive from studies of how word recognition fails after brain injury – make use of “box models” of cognitive processing popular in mainstream cognitive psychology – basic structural features: • domain­specific systems • lexicons Model of Processes involved in Analysis of Spoken Words Pure Word Deafness Pattern 1: ORF Repeats words (85%) better than nonwords (39%), but can understand familiar words Pattern 2: Wordmeaning deafness – can repeat but not understand; can repeat words (80%) better than nonwords (7%); can understand written words Normally, all routes are available; damage to system reveals fractionated performance which serves to “isolate” each route to a greater or lesser degree Route 1: accesses full representation of word, including meaning and spoken form Route 2: same as route 1 without meaning Route 3: involves phonemespoken form conversion (e.g., for repetition) Stages in Lexical Processing (Single Word Recognition) • Contact of the analyzed waveform with the lexicon – Spectrographic (LAFS) – Motor theory – Phonemic theories • Activation of specific lexical entries • Selection of appropriate lexical entry from set of activated candidates • Access to the full information from the lexical entry Reading (Visual Word Comprehension) • Similar processes likely, but entry into the system is a visual (graphemic), not an acoustic (phonemic) representation • Transformation from grapemes to phonemes is critical • Two routes to reading – Grapheme-phoneme conversion – Lexical (whole word) reading How Reading is Studied How Reading is Studied • • • • • Eye movement recordings Reading aloud RSVP (rapid serial visual presentation) Subject­controlled presentation Word­identification techniques – lexical decision – naming Eye­Movement Research • • • • Emphasizes a “word­recognition” vs. “meaning construction” approach to reading Asymmetric perceptual span (3­4 letters to the left of fixation and 15 letters to the right) Parafoveal preview allows for skipping words Fixations may be affected by context and meaning – predictable words receive less fixation – “garden path” sentences: “The young man turned his back on the rock concert stage and looked across the resort lake. Tomorrow was the annual one­ day fishing contest and fishermen would invade the place. Some of the best bass guitarists would come to this spot” – derivation of meaning occurs early (parafoveally? instantaneously?) Fixation data from a normal (PP) and a dyslexic (Dave) reader Numbers immediately below the dots are the sequence of eye movements, and the lower numbers are fixation times Visual Word Identification • Rapid (200ms) • Automatic (e.g., Stroop effect) • Basic effects: – word­letter effect: letters identified better if in words than if alone (e.g., TAKE v. _ _ K _) – word­superiority effect: letters identified better when in real word (e.g., TAKE v. PAKE) – These effects imply that “word environment” influences recognition Visual word recognition is automatic….. red green blue green yellow red blue green blue red yellow green yellow red red blue Visual Word Identification: Models I Visual Word Identification: Models I • Serial Letter Model . Visual Letter Detection Processing . • Parallel Letter Model Word Detection Visual Processing Letter Detectors Word Detectors • Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at an Elingsh uinervtisy, it deson't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht frist and lsat ltteer is at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae we do not raed ervey lteetr by it slef but the wrod as a wlohe. Visual Word Identification: Models II Visual Word Identification: Models II • Direct Word Model Letter Detection Visual Processing Word Detection • Interactive Activation Model Visual Input Feature Analysis Letter Analysis Word Analysis McClelland & Rumelhart’s Interactive Activation Model McClelland Cognitive Neuropsychological Model of Processes involved in Reading – the “Dual Route Cascaded Model” (Coltheart, et al 2001) Example from book: CAT FOG COMB PINT MANTINESS FASS Route 1 (Grapheme– Phoneme Conversion) • Converting spelling (graphemes) into sound (phonemes) • Marshall and Newcombe (1973) – Surface dyslexia – poor reading of irregular words; strong reliance on Route 1 • McCarthy and Warrington (1984) – KT read 100% of nonwords accurately, and 81% of regular words, but was successful with only 41% of irregular words – Over 70% of the errors that KT made with irregular words were due to regularisation • Significant variability in performance, suggesting that this is not a clear dissociation Phonological Awareness Route 2 (Lexicon Plus Semantic System) • Event sequence – Representations of familiar words are stored in an orthographic input lexicon; activation leads to… – Meaning is activated by the semantic system and.. – Sound pattern is generated in the phonological output lexicon • Beauvois and Dérouesné (1979) – Phonological dyslexia – impaired Route 1; use Route 2; 100% real words; 10% nonwords • Coltheart (1996) – General phonological impairments, not just problems with phoneme­grapheme conversion Route 3 (Lexicon Only) • Like Route 2 but the semantic system is bypassed – printed words are pronounced but not understood • Funnell (1983) – Phonological dyslexia with poor ability to make semantic judgments about words • Coslett (1991) – Reasonably good at reading irregular words, but had no understanding of them Deep Dyslexia • Characteristics – Particular problems in reading unfamiliar words – An inability to read nonwords – Semantic reading errors (e.g., “ship” read as “boat”) • Damage to the grapheme–phoneme conversion and semantic systems • Patterson, Vargha­Khadem, and Polkey (1989) – Studied left hemispheric removal, producing all of these symtpoms; argued that reading is taking place in right hemisphere • Laine et al. (2000) used MEG – Activation mainly in the left hemisphere Language Comprehension • Parsing: analysis of syntactical (grammatical) structure of the sentence • Analysis of literal meaning (semantics) • Analysis of intended meaning (pragmatics) Parsing • Four major possibilities: – Syntactic analysis generally precedes (and influences) semantic analysis – Semantic analysis usually occurs prior to syntactic analysis – Syntactic and semantic analysis occur at the same time, in parallel – Syntax and semantics are very closely associated, and have a hand-in-glove relationship Grammar/Syntax • Syntax – word order and combination critical to meaning: – “He showed her the boys pants.” – “He showed her boys the pants.” • An infinite number of sentences is possible in any language • Sentences are nevertheless systematic and organised • Chomsky (1957, 1959) – Rules to take account of the productivity and the regularity of language – A grammar should be able to generate all the permissible sentences in a given language Syntactic Ambiguity • “They are flying planes” – The grammatical structure is ambiguous • Global and local levels • Making use of prosodic cues – Stress and intonation (illustrate with above example) • Allbritton, McKoon, and Ratcliff (1996) – Doubts about the use of prosodic cues • Snedeker and Trueswell (2003) – Listeners’ interpretation of ambiguous sentences was influenced by prosodic cues even before the start of the ambiguous phrase Garden-Path Model • Frazier and Rayner (1982) – Only one syntactical structure is initially considered for any sentence – Meaning is not involved in the selection of the initial syntactical structure – The simplest syntactical structure is chosen, making use of two general principles: minimal attachment and late closure – According to the principle of minimal attachment, the grammatical structure producing the fewest nodes is preferred – The principle of late closure is that new words encountered in a sentence are attached to the current phrase or clause if grammatically permissible Evidence for the Garden-Path Model Incorrect object: towel on its own Disambiguating context: presenting an apple on a towel and another on a napkin “Put the apple on the towel in the box” Based on data in Spivey et al. (2002). Constraint-based Theory • MacDonald et al. (1994) – all relevant information/constraints are available – various possibilities influence comprehension to the extent they are activated – Grammatical knowledge constrains possible sentence interpretations – The various forms of information associated with any given word are typically not independent of each other – A word may be less ambiguous in some ways than in others (e.g., ambiguous for tense but not for grammatical category) – The various interpretations permissible according to grammatical rules generally differ considerably in frequency and probability on the basis of past experience – As the woman edited the magazine amused all the reporters. – As the woman sailed the magazine amused all the reporters. Unrestricted Race Model (combines features of GP and CB theories) • Van Gompel, Pickering, and Traxler (2000) – combines aspects of GP and UR models – All sources of information are used to identify a syntactic structure, as is assumed by constraintbased models – All other possible syntactic structures are ignored unless the favoured syntactic structure is disconfirmed by subsequent information – If the initially chosen syntactic structure has to be discarded, there is an extensive process of reanalysis before a different syntactic structure is chosen Evidence for the Unrestricted Race Model Ambig: The burglar stabbed only the guy with the dagger during the night. Verb-phrase: The burglar stabbed only the dog with the dagger during the night. Noun-phrase: The burglar stabbed only the dog with the collar during the night. GP: 2<<3 UR: 2=3<1 • Data from van Gompel et al. (2001). Inference Drawing • Rumelhart and Ortony (1977) 1) 2) 3) Mary heard the ice­cream truck coming She remembered the pocket money She rushed into the house WHAT’S HAPPENING HERE? • • • – – – Logical inferences Depend on the meaning of the words Bridging inferences Establish coherence between the current part of the text and the preceding text Elaborative inferences Serve to embellish or add details to the text Drawing Inferences in Drawing Inferences in Language Comprehension • “She took out an apple and ate it.” • Anaphora: “Bob told Bill about his serious illness” – Bridging inference: “his” refers to “Bob” • depends on distance between Bob and “his” (probably not) • depends on “Bob” as topic of discourse • Three models: – constructivist: full mental model formed – minimalist: only limited, constrained, inferences are formed (automatic vs. strategic distinction) – search­after­meaning: meaning constructed ‘after the fact’ in accordance to goals Search­after­Meaning Theory • Graesser, Singer, and Trabasso (1994) – The reader goal assumption • The reader constructs a meaning for the text that addresses his/her goals – The coherence assumption • The reader tries to construct a meaning for the text that is coherent locally and globally – The explanation assumption • The reader tries to explain the actions, events, and states referred to in the text Minimalist Hypothesis • McKoon and Ratcliff (1992) assumptions • In the absence of goal­directed strategic process, minimal inferences occur: those that establish local coherence and those that are readily available because they’re explicitly stated – Inferences are either automatic or strategic (goal directed) – Some automatic inferences establish local coherence; these inferences involve parts of the text in working memory at the same time – Other automatic inferences rely on information readily available because it is explicitly stated in the text – Strategic inferences are formed in pursuit of the reader’s goals; they sometimes serve to produce local coherence • The types of inferences normally drawn, together with the predictions from the S-A-M and minimalist perspectives. Adapted from Graesser et al. (1994). Semantic System • System for storing meaning • Meaning stored separately from form • Models of representation in semantics – Feature­based models (see categorization) – Nondecompositional meaning (lexicons) • Modality­specific (fractionated) semantic deficits – Modality­specific deficts (e.g., optic aphasia) Category­specific: e.g. living things, fruits Two Example Models of Semantic Organization One Semantic System Multiple Semantic Systems ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course CLP 7934 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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