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Language2_08 - 1 Language II 2 Speech/Language Production I...

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1 1 Language II October 30, 2008 2 Speech/Language Production I Speech/Language Production I Common Features of Models – extensive pre-planning – distinct stages of processing – general (intended meaning)-to-specific (utterance) organization – most models use of speech errors as data 3 Spreading Activation Theory (Dell) • four levels of activity Semantic (meaning) Syntactic (grammatical structure of words in the planned sentence) Morphological (basic units of meaning or word forms) Phonological (sounds) • representation formed at each level • processing occurs simultaneously at all levels • uses speech errors as primary data 4 Spreading Activation (cont’d) • Lexicon: connectionist network containing nodes for concepts, words, morphemes, and phonemes • Insertion rules (which is highest activated?) determine items selected for insertion into sentences • Errors predicted by model: Errors more likely when speaker has not formed a coherent speech plan Errors should be from same category Anticipation errors (because of multiple activations; “The sky is in the sky”) Exchange errors (because once selected, items’ activation turns to zero (“I hit the bat with my ball”) 5 Speech Production II Speech Production II Levelt/Bock approach – four stages: message, functional processing, positional processing, and phonological encoding – information about syntax (lemma) available before sound (lexeme) – consistent with TOT phenomenon 6 7 8
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