representation_categorization_08 - 1 Representation and...

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1 1 Representation and Categorization Representation and Categorization October 16, 2008 2 Representation Representation “any notation or sign or set of symbols which ‘re-presents’ something to us…that is, stands for something in the absence of that thing” objects of the external world (things) objects of the internal world (ideas) The “what” and “how” of representation is critical to most core issues in cognitive psychology implies some storage of information key problem: what is stored? nature of representation can be revealed through performance, but there are limitations 3 Types of Representations 4 Representations: Another classification Representations: Another classification Perceptually-based representations Imagery (encodes visual+spatial structure) visual (object-based) • spatial Linear Orderings (encodes sequence) Meaning-based representations (e ncode what is significant about an event) Propositions (code relations ‘linguistically’) Schemas (large, complex units of knowledge) event schemas (scripts) object schemas (concepts) attributes prototypes 5 6 7 8 Images vs. Propositions Are images really different from propositions? – YES (Paivio dual-coding theory) – NO (Pylyshyn, Anderson & Bower) Does imagery have any functional significance? What is the relationship between perception and imagery? 9 Memory for Visual Images Although people are generally good at remembering the general ‘gist’ (meaning) of pictures, memory for picture details is relatively poor Representative studies: Mandler & Ritchey (1977): study classroom pictures, present with distractors (next slide) Nickerson & Adams (1979): people virtually at chance in reproducing the correct configuration of a penny • Conclusion: meaning-based representations ARE really different from perceptually-based representations 10
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2 11 12 Paivio Paivio’ s Dual s Dual- Coding Theory Coding Theory • Two basic coding systems: verbal and nonverbal • Each is specialized for encoding, storing, organizing and retrieving information • Each system consists of sensorimotor subsystems • Basic representational units: logogens and imagens • Systems interconnected by ‘referential links’ 13 14 15 Evidence for and against dual Evidence for and against dual- coding theory 1 FOR Free recall of pictures > words Concrete words > abstract words Free recall of words encoded with imagery instructions > pronunciation Spatial interference effects (Baddeley et al., Brooks) Hemispheric differences in abstract-concrete word recognition 2 AGAINST Interactive imagery instructions enhance cued-recall, but separate-imagery instructions do not (enhance relational organization) Little evidence for cognitive mechanisms of imagery (but see next slides; this may be changing) 16 17 18 Structure of Images From psychological studies, results suggest that mental operations on images are similar to mental operations on percepts MENTAL ROTATION:
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  • Fall '08
  • Staff
  • Categorization, Categories, concept learning, perceptually-based representations, meaning-based representations

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