representation_categorization_08

representation_categorization_08 - 1 Representation and...

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1 1 Representation and Categorization Representation and Categorization October 16, 2008 2 Representation Representation • “any notation or sign or set of symbols which ‘re-presents’ something to us…that is, stands for something in the absence of that thing” – objects of the external world (things) – objects of the internal world (ideas) • The “what” and “how” of representation is critical to most core issues in cognitive psychology • implies some storage of information • key problem: what is stored? • nature of representation can be revealed through performance, but there are limitations 3 Types of Representations 4 Representations: Another classification Representations: Another classification Perceptually-based representations – Imagery (encodes visual+spatial structure) • visual (object-based) •s p a t i a l – Linear Orderings (encodes sequence) Meaning-based representations (e ncode what is significant about an event) – Propositions (code relations ‘linguistically’) – Schemas (large, complex units of knowledge) event schemas (scripts) object schemas (concepts) attributes prototypes 5 6 7 8 Images vs. Propositions Are images really different from propositions? – YES (Paivio dual-coding theory) Does imagery have any functional significance? What is the relationship between perception and imagery? 9 Memory for Visual Images Memory for Visual Images • Although people are generally good at remembering the general ‘gist’ (meaning) of pictures, memory for picture details is relatively poor • Representative studies: study classroom pictures, present with distractors (next slide)
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2 11 12 Paivio Paivio ’s Dual s Dual -Coding Theory Coding Theory • Two basic coding systems: verbal and nonverbal • Each is specialized for encoding, storing, organizing and retrieving information • Each system consists of sensorimotor subsystems • Basic representational units: logogens and imagens • Systems interconnected by ‘referential links’ 13 14 15 Evidence for and against dual Evidence for and against dual -coding theory coding theory 1 FOR Free recall of pictures > words Concrete words > abstract words Free recall of words encoded with imagery instructions > pronunciation Spatial interference effects (Baddeley et al., Brooks) Hemispheric differences in abstract-concrete word recognition 2 AGAINST Interactive imagery instructions enhance cued-recall, but separate-imagery instructions do not (enhance relational organization) Little evidence for cognitive mechanisms of imagery (but see next slides; this may be changing) 16 17 18 Structure of Images From psychological studies, results suggest that mental operations on images are similar to
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representation_categorization_08 - 1 Representation and...

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