representation_categorization_08

Representation_categ - Representation and Representation and Categorization Categorization Representation Representation • “any notation or

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Unformatted text preview: Representation and Representation and Categorization Categorization October 16, 2008 Representation Representation • “any notation or sign or set of symbols which ‘re-presents’ something to us…that is, stands for something in the absence of that thing” – objects of the external world (things) – objects of the internal world (ideas) • The “what” and “how” of representation is critical to most core issues in cognitive psychology • implies some storage of information • key problem: what is stored? • nature of representation can be revealed through performance, but there are limitations Types of Representations maps written language Representations: Another classification Representations: Another classification • Perceptually-based representations – Imagery (encodes visual+spatial structure) • visual (object-based) • spatial – Linear Orderings (encodes sequence) • Meaning-based representations (e ncode what is significant about an event) – Propositions (code relations ‘linguistically’) – Schemas (large, complex units of knowledge) • event schemas (scripts) • object schemas (concepts) – attributes – prototypes analogic linguistic Images vs. Propositions • Are images really different from propositions? – YES (Paivio dual-coding theory) – NO (Pylyshyn, Anderson & Bower) • Does imagery have any functional significance? • What is the relationship between perception and imagery? Memory for Visual Images Memory for Visual Images • Although people are generally good at remembering the general ‘gist’ (meaning) of pictures, memory for picture details is relatively poor • Representative studies : – Mandler & Ritchey (1977): study classroom pictures, present with distractors (next slide) – Nickerson & Adams (1979): people virtually at chance in reproducing the correct configuration of a penny • Conclusion : meaning-based representations ARE really different from perceptually-based representations Paivio’s Dual-Coding Theory Paivio’s Dual-Coding Theory • Two basic coding systems : verbal and nonverbal • Each is specialized for encoding, storing, organizing and retrieving information • Each system consists of sensorimotor subsystems • Basic representational units: logogens and imagens • Systems interconnected by ‘referential links’ Paivio’s Dual-Coding Theory Paivio’s Dual-Coding Theory Evidence for and against dual-coding Evidence for and against dual-coding theory theory FOR • Free recall of pictures > words • Concrete words > abstract words • Free recall of words encoded with imagery instructions > pronunciation • Spatial interference effects (Baddeley et al., Brooks) (Baddeley et al....
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course CLP 7934 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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Representation_categ - Representation and Representation and Categorization Categorization Representation Representation • “any notation or

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