HM07F_E2K - EXP 4504 FALL 2007 HUMAN MEMORY EXAM#2 NAME...

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EXP 4504 HUMAN MEMORY NAME:_________________________ FALL 2007 EXAM #2 Answer ANY FOUR on each page: 1. Based on the “nice forgetting curve” that they observed in their distractor paradigm (trigram, followed by counting backwards for 3-18 sec), the Petersons (1959) concluded that forgetting from STM was due to a decay process. What was one subsequent finding that showed that interference was, in fact, occurring in STM? Two most relevant studies from the text – Waugh & Norman’s showing that the number of intervening items, and not time per se, predicted forgetting over the short term; or Keppel & Underwood’s demo that on the very first trial of P&P task, there was little or no forgetting over even 20 sec – suggesting a “buildup” of proactive interference over the first few trials. Part credit for other kinds of interference in attention, or LTM. 2. The “modal memory model” of Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) claimed that long-term memory strength was primarily tied to the amount of STM rehearsal. What sort of evidence did they point to in support of that claim? Most direct evidence was that when you had people rehearse out loud, the number of rehearsals correlated strongly with prob of recall, at least prior to the “recency” portion of the serial position curve. Part credit for saying something like “the more items are practiced, the better the recall.” 3. State and give the function of each of the three main structural components of Baddeley & Hitch’s (1974) Working Memory model. Give an example of a “secondary task” designed to selectively interfere with the function of one of those components. Central exec. (attention and control; random number generation), phonol loop [artic loop and phono store] (verbal/artic codes; irrelevant speech or articulation), visual-spatial sketchpad (spatial and visual info; keypad pattern press). Full credit in most cases here. 4. What is the “word length effect” in working memory? How does it explain apparent differences in digit span for, say, Chinese vs. Welsh children? “Length” refers to how long it takes to pronounce; the longer the words, the fewer that can be remembered in
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HM07F_E2K - EXP 4504 FALL 2007 HUMAN MEMORY EXAM#2 NAME...

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