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STUDY GUIDE—PSB 3002 HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION Neolithic humans (cranial surgery—trephinations) Hippocrates (brain for intellect) Aristotle (heart for intellect, brain to cool blood) da Vinci (drawings of brain, including ventricular system) Vesalius (anatomy, including nervous system) Harvey (physiology, including circulatory system) Descartes (first mechanism by which brain produces movement) Haller (disproved Descartes hypothesis) Bell and Magendie (Bell-Magendie law) Muller (Law of specific nerve energies, Labelled line theory) Gall (phrenology) Broca (localization of language in brain-damaged patient) Flourens (first experimental brain damage; studied localization of function) Galvani (animal electricity in frog's leg) Volta (nerves respond to electrical stimulation) Helmholtz (speed of conduction) Golgi (Golgi stain; reticular theory) Cajal (neuron doctrine) Sherrington (synapse; mechanism of reflex) Bernard (curare; suggested chemical messengers in blood) Dale (suggested acetylcholine acts as neurotransmitter on frog's heart) Loewe (showed that acetylcholine is, in fact, released from nerve innervating frog's heart) Hebb (Hebbian synapses; synaptic mechanism of learning) CELLS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM neuron bilipid membrane or phospholipid bilayer soma dendrite, dendritic arbor or tree axon axon hillock axon collateral synapse synaptic boutons, buttons, or knobs synaptic vesicles neurotransmitter synaptic cleft presynaptic terminal arbor terminal bouton, button or knob synaptosome processes unipolar neuron bipolar neuron multipolar neuron sensory neuron motoneuron interneuron local neuron (Golgi type I) projection neuron (Golgi type II) excitatory neuron inhibitory neuron glia astrocytes--functions
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microglia oligodendroglia Schwann cells myelin sheath functions of neurons reception and integration of inputs generation of action potential conduction of action potential synaptic transmission PHYSIOLOGY OF THE NEURON membrane potential resting potential concentration gradient (osmotic pressure) electrical gradient (electrostatic pressure) selective permeability dynamic equilibrium excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) depolarization inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) hyperpolarization ions and ion channels, channel proteins leak channels chemical-sensitive or chemically gated channels voltage-sensitive or voltage-gated channels Nernst equation equilibrium potential threshold subthreshold suprathreshold graded potential temporal summation spatial summation membrane and internal resistance action potential or spike rising and falling phases repolarization undershoot refractory period propagation of action potential sodium and potassium currents sodium-potassium pump closed, open and inactivated sodium channels nodes of Ranvier saltatory conduction synaptic transmission Ca 2+ - dependent neurotransmitter release
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course PSB 6087 taught by Professor Stehouwer during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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