motor - Motor Systems Motor Unit Motoneuron muscle fibers...

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Motor Systems
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Motor Unit Motoneuron + muscle fibers it innervates Range in size from a few muscle fibers (e.g. extraocular muscles) To hundreds of fibers (e.g. digits) To thousands of fibers (e.g. trunk and major limb segments) Smaller motor units yield more refined contro a motor “fovea”
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sarcomere
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Alpha-gamma co-activation
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Meissner’s Merkel’s Pacinian Ruffini’s Free nerve ending
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Monosynaptic stretch reflex Golgi tendon organ reflex
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somatosensory afferents motor afferents
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(A δ ) (C)
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Muscle Spindles Golgi Tendon Organs respond to muscle length, or stretch insensitive to tension 1a afferents for dynamic spindles Group II afferents for postural spindles monosynatic stretch reflex (excitatory) respond to muscle tension insensitive to muscle length, or stretch 1b afferents disynaptic reflex (inhibitory)
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Problem of locomotion Degrees of freedom problem (Bernstein) Dozens of joints controlled by hundreds of muscles Muscles can contract in any combination, in any order, for any duration, and with any force.
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