Neuroend - Neuroendocrinology Hormones Endocrine hormones...

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Unformatted text preview: Neuroendocrinology Hormones Endocrine hormones Secreted directly into the blood Controlled by pituitary (master gland) and hypothalamus Exocrine Hormones Secreted into ducts Not controlled by pituitary gland or hypothalamus (e.g., gut hormones) Hormones Neurotransmitters long latency, long duration of effect (mins/days) short latency, short duration of effect (msec) delivered via blood released directly onto target cells diffuse actions specific actions released from endocrine cells released from neurons This distinction has become blurred; e.g. peptide neurotransmitters/neuromodulators, monoamines, etc. Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis) Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis) Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Endocrine Gland Target tissues Control of Adenohypophysial Hormones Indirect Loop Short Loop Direct Loop Releasing Factor Trophic hormone Endocrine hormone All loops are negative feedback loops. Increases in the amount of the substances monitored reduces further secretion of those substances. neural inputs Endocrine Hormones Neurohypophysial hormones Oxytocin Vasopressin Adenohypophysial hormones Direct Actions Prolactin Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) Somatotrophin (growth hormone; GH) Indirect actions Thyrotrophin (TSH) Corticotrophin (ACTH) Gonadotrophins Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Endocrine Hormones Adenohypophysial hormones Direct Actions Somatotrophin (growth hormone; GH) Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) somatotrophin (GH) somatic tissues promotes growth by stimulating proteins synthesis of virtually all tissues GH release inhibited by somatostatin Endocrine Hormones Adenohypophysial hormones Direct Actions Prolactin Somatotrophin (growth hormone; GH) prolactin release inhibited by prolactin inhibiting factor (PIF) PIF secretion inhibited by stimulation of nipples stimulates milk production Endocrine Hormones Adenohypophysial hormones Direct Actions Prolactin Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) Somatotrophin (growth hormone; GH) MSH releasing factor melanocyte-stimulating hormone stimulates melanin synthesis in melanocytes Hypothalamus Adenohypophysis Endocrine Gland Target tissues Control of Adrenocortical Hormones Indirect Loop Short Loop Direct Loop Corticotrophin or ACTH Cortisol and Aldosterone All loops are negative feedback loops. Increases in the amount of the substances monitored reduces further secretion of those substances. neural inputs Corticotrophin Releasing Factor Endocrine Hormones Adenohypophysial hormones Direct Actions Prolactin Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) Somatotrophin (growth hormone; GH) Indirect actions Corticotrophin (ACTH) regulates stress hormones and nutrient utilization (glucocorticoids) and water/mineral balance (mineralocorticoids) Corticotrophin Controls secretions from adrenal cortex ad = on renal = kidney adrenal, on the kidney adrenal really two glands in one cortex = bark medulla = core medulla is a modified sympathetic ganglion cortex is an endocrine gland Activity of both medulla and cortex are stress-related What is stress?What is stress?...
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This note was uploaded on 12/01/2011 for the course PSB 6087 taught by Professor Stehouwer during the Fall '08 term at University of Florida.

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Neuroend - Neuroendocrinology Hormones Endocrine hormones...

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