2010 bio 113 (18)

2010 bio 113 (18) - Chapter 18: The Genetics of Viruses and...

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Chapter 18: The Genetics of Viruses and Bacteria
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Important Point:
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What is Microbiology? Microbiology is the science that studies microorganisms Microorganisms, roughly, are those living things that are too small to be seen with the naked eye Microorganisms cannot be distinguished phylogenetically from “Macroorganisms”, e.g., includes fungi as well as bacteria, etc. (that is, they are not, as a whole, a closely related group of organisms) Microbiology is more a collection of techniques: Aseptic technique, Pure culture technique, Microscopic observation of whole organisms, etc. A microbiologist usually first isolates a specific microorganism from a population and then cultures it
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Microbes are produces—they provide energy to ecosystems Microbes are fixers—they make nutrients available from inorganic sources, e.g., nitrogen Microbes are decomposers—they free up nutrients from no longer living sources Microbes form symbioses (such as mycorrhizal fungi associated with plant roots—though these are somewhat macroscopic; also the bacteria found in legume root nodules, etc.) Microbes serve as emdosymbionts (e.g., chloroplasts and mitochondria) Microbes make fermentation products (ethanol!), food (beer! Cheese! Yogurt! Half-sour pickles!), Biotech products (e.g., recombinant insulin), etc. Germ theory of disease; Normal flora
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This note was uploaded on 12/02/2011 for the course BIO 113 taught by Professor Swenson during the Fall '08 term at Ohio State.

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2010 bio 113 (18) - Chapter 18: The Genetics of Viruses and...

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