Philosophy Final Exam Review

Philosophy Final Exam Review - Final Exam Study Guide Short...

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Final Exam Study Guide Short Answer Section: I. Egoism Psychological Egoism : Everyone always acts selfishly -PE is a factual theory that aims to fit the world. If the world is not as psychological egoism says it is, because someone acts unselfishly, then something is wrong with PE. Ethical Egoism : Everyone ought to act selfishly - EE is an evaluative theory that aims to have the world fit it. If the world is not as ethical egoism says it ought to be, because someone acts unselfishly, then, from the point of view of EE, something is wrong with the world: the person is acting irrationally. 1 st Argument for Psychological Egoism 1. Everyone always does what he most wants to do 2. If someone does what he wants to do, he acts selfishly 3. ● Everyone acts selfishly Criticisms for the 1 st Argument 1. There are things that we do, not because we want to, but because we feel we ought to→ premise one is false a. Reply: Acting on feeling of desire so you are still doing what you want 2. Acting on your desires does not mean you are looking out for yourself→ premise one is false *Depends on what you desire 2 nd Argument of Psychological Egoism 1. Everyone always does what he most wants to do 2. If someone does what he most wants to do, he gets satisfaction 3. ● If doing something brings you satisfaction, then that satisfaction is his only goal 4. If satisfaction is someone’s only goal, he acts selfishly 5. ● Everyone acts selfishly Criticisms for the 2 nd Argument 1. Joseph Butler claims that you can’t have satisfaction as your only goal, you get something else as well→ premise 3 is false a. Revised argument: Change premise 3 to: If doing something brings someone satisfaction, then that satisfaction is one of his goals 3 rd Argument for Psychological Egoism 1. For every apparently unselfish action, there is always an underlying selfish motive. (the strategy of reinterpreting motives) Conclusion: Psychological Egoism is false
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1 st Argument for Ethical Egoism 1. We ought to do whatever will best promote everyone’s best interests 2. The best way to promote everyone’s interests is for each of us to pursue our own interests exclusively 3. ● Each of us should pursue our own interests exclusively Criticisms for the 1 st Argument: 1. Idea in conclusion is not egotistic. Not an argument for ethical egoism, but rather an argument for behaving like an egoist→ premise two is false 2 nd Argument for Ethical Egoism: 1. Each one of us will live his own life and no one else’s 2. It is rational to care only about lives you will live 3. ● It is rational to care only about your own life Argument against Ethical Egoism 1. Any moral doctrine that assigns greater importance to the interests of one group then to those of another is unacceptably arbitrary unless there is some difference between the members of the groups that justifies treating them differently 2. Ethical Egoism would have each person assign greater importance to his own interests than to the interests of others. But there is no general difference between onself and
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This note was uploaded on 12/02/2011 for the course PHIL 1305 taught by Professor Idk during the Spring '11 term at University of Houston.

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Philosophy Final Exam Review - Final Exam Study Guide Short...

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