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Philosophy Midterm Review - Philosophy Midterm Review Short...

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Philosophy Midterm Review Short Answer: I. Validity and Soundness Validity - if it is impossible for all the premises to be true and the conclusion false. - if all the premises are true, the conclusion must be true - internal relation between statements Sound - If deductively valid and all its premises are true II. Moral Skepticism Moral Skepticism: There is no such thing as objective moral truth A. Cultural Differences Argument - Different Cultures have different ideas concerning right and wrong - Ex: Eskimos accept infanticide; other societies believe infanticide is morally odious→ infanticide is neither objectively right nor wrong; merely a matter of opinion Objections: - invalid and therefore unsound because conclusion does not follow its premises - Some people believe A, others believe B, therefore, no conclusion→ NOT TRUE B. Provability Argument - If there was a thing as objective truth in ethics, we should be able to prove that some moral opinions are true and others are false - We cannot prove which moral opinions are true and which are false - Therefore there is no such thing as objective truth Objections: - Valid but not sound - Second premise is false: some moral opinions are provable Cultural Relativism : Moral code of society determines what is right in that society Principle of Tolerance : Societies and individuals ought not to interfere with or impose their values on members of other societies. Arguments to accept Moral Skepticism/Cultural Relativism : We should accept moral skepticism (or cultural relativism) because it supports tolerance more specifically, either
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a) we should accept moral skepticism because the argument ∙ moral skepticism ∙ therefore, principle of tolerance is sound b) we should accept cultural relativism because the argument ∙ cultural relativism ∙ therefore, principle of tolerance is sound III. Morality and Religion Divine Command Theory - “Morally Right” means commanded by God - “Morally Wrong” means forbidden by God
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