08_charging - Lesson 8: Charging by Friction, Induction,...

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Charging by Friction Up to this point we have really only discussed the oldest way to give an object a charge. Rubbing two different materials together, a process known as charging by friction ( AKA charging by rubbing ), is the simplest way to give something a charge. This is what you do every time you drag your feet along a carpet so you can reach out and zap someone's ear. Your feet in socks and the carpet are doing charging by friction. Since the two objects are made of different materials, their atoms will hold onto their electrons with different strengths. As they pass over each other the electrons with weaker bonds are “ripped” off one material and collect on the other material. Example 1 : Rub a piece of ebonite (very hard, black rubber) across a piece of animal fur . Explain what happens. The fur does not hold on to its electrons as strongly as the ebonite . At least some of the electrons will be ripped off of the fur and stay on the ebonite . Now the fur has a slightly positive charge (it lost some electrons) and the ebonite is slightly negative (it gained some electrons).The net charge is still zero between the two… remember the conservation of charge. No charges have been created or destroyed, just moved around. Example 2 : Rub a glass rod with a piece of silk . Explain what happens. This is the same sort of situation as the one above. In this case the silk holds onto the electrons more strongly than the glass . Electrons are ripped off of the glass and go on to the silk . The glass is now positive and the silk is negative . You may be wondering how you could ever keep track of this, since the combinations of different materials being rubbed on each other is infinite. Rather than try to keep track of all the combinations, we arrange common materials in a chart called an “ Electrostatic Series. To use the electrostatic series, you first need to find the two different materials that are being rubbed. Whichever material is closer
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This note was uploaded on 12/02/2011 for the course PHYSICS 235 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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08_charging - Lesson 8: Charging by Friction, Induction,...

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