psych - Individual Differences in Emotion Lecture 12...

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Individual Differences in Emotion – Lecture 12 Personality Traits vs. Situations? Social Psychologists focus on the power of situational variables to affect the person Personality psychologists focus on stable individual differences, like traits Differences: individuals have differing levels of POSITIVE and NEGATIVE emotionality biological basis for the distinction Eysenck’s PEN Model Extraversion – positive emotion o Differing resting levels of cortical arousal o Extraverts have BELOW optimal level Seek out + experiences for stimulation Increased + emotion Neuroticism – negative emotion o Different reactivity in Symp NS (fight/flight) o Neurotics HIGHLY reactive Easily upset, increases – emotion Gray’s Inhibition/Approach Model Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) Behavioral Approach System (BAS) Primary Cause of Individual differences in emotion? nature vs. nurture genetic or environmental? Dominant view in development stressed environment o Attachment theory o Temperament Bowbly took Lorenz’s ethological notion of “imprinting” published “Attachment” Theory attachment = bond btwn child and caregiver key claim = there are different STYLES of infant attachment o these styles important for how we form other relationships first one acts as prototype Ainsworth’s “Strange Situation” Attachement styles: o “secure” child explores freely engages with strangers visibly upset when parent leaves happy to see parent return
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o “anxious resistant” anxious of exploration and of strangers, even when parent is present when mother departs, child distressed child ambivalent when parent returns seeks to stay close to parent but resentful o “Anxious-Avoidant” avoids/ignores parent will not explore strangers not treated dif than parents not much emotional range o “Disorganized Attachment” erratic, inconsistent style actions responses = mix of behaviors, incl avoidance/resistance dazed behavior, confused and apprehensive with parent Implications: quality of infant- caregiver attachment relationship determines adult characteristics degree of +/- emotionality importance on parental involvement Temperament component of emotionality early emerging “dispositioin” tendency or bias biologically based inherited stable across situations and times Galen’s Prophecy 4 Humours: Blood, Phlegm, Black Bile, Yellow Bile o balance of these four cause personality traits Dimensions of Temperament activity level (general arousal) impulsivity (time taken to express emotion) positive emotionality (smiling, laughing, sociability) negative emotionality (irritability, fearfulness, soothability) Studies on Temperament dangling toys in front of babies o 20% showed distress = “high reactive” o 40% showed little or no emotion/motion = “low reactive” came back at ages 2, 4, 7, 10-12
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