10-23-08[lecture15]ht

10-23-08[lecture15]ht - Chem 116 Lecture 15 Notes[HT Exam 2...

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Chem 116: Lecture 15 Notes 10/23/08 [HT] Exam 2 will cover Chapters 13, 14, and parts of 21. Chapter 21: Nuclear Chemistry Chemical bonding studies the activities of the valence electrons in atoms. Nuclear chemistry examines the activities in the nucleus, the location of the neutrons and protons. Protons are positive and same charged particles repel, however the “strong force” of the neutrons overcomes this repelling action of the protons. As understood from earlier lectures, an element is determined by the number of protons it has. Same elements with different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. Different isotopes have different natural abundances. Different isotopes = different abundances = different ratio of neutron: proton = different levels of stability = different tendency to be radioactive. Refer to page 4. The graph shows the 1:1 neutron: proton ratio line, which shows the most stable isotopes. When the term “splitting an atom” is used, the reference is to the splitting of the nucleus
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