CH116lecture1P

CH116lecture1P - UMass Boston, Chem 116 CHEM 116 Chemical...

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UMass Boston, Chem 116 ©H.Sev ian 1 CHEM 116 Chemical Principles II Intro to Behavior of Gases Lecture 1 Prof. Sevian Birdseye view of Chemical Principles I and II 1. Matter is made of atoms, and atoms are conserved 2. Elements display periodicity 3. Chemical bonds form when electrons pair 4. The shapes and sizes of particles determine the properties of materials 5. The behavior of particles is explained by attractions and repulsions between unlike and like particles, respectively 6. Energy is conserved 7. Entropy tends to increase 8. There are barriers to reaction 9. There are only four types of reactions See http://www.rsc.org/Education/EiC/issues/2005_jan/skeletal.asp
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UMass Boston, Chem 116 ©H.Sev ian 2 Welcome to Chem 116 z Begin with Chapter 10: Gases z Describing and characterizing gases z Predicting the behavior of gases z Useful behaviors of gases z Begin by comparing three phases of matter Phases of matter z Solid z Liquid z Gas Describe them. z How are they the same? z How are they different? z What makes them different? Characteristics of gases vs. other two phases Gases z Very compressible z Spread out to occupy all the space given in a container z Low density z Particles are far apart z Particles are in rapid motion (kinetic energy) Liquids and/or solids z Not (very) compressible z Occupy specific volumes, regardless of the container z High density z Particles are much closer together z Particles have less kinetic energy than in gases 1. Gases are compressible because the particles are widely separated. 2. Gases immediately fill all available space because the particles are in ceaseless chaotic and rapid motion. Macroscopic observations Particle level explanation
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UMass Boston, Chem 116 ©H.Sev ian 3 Conceptualizing gases We often play with gases in syringes. Syringe parts: • barrel •t ip • plunger Image from www.vetmed.wsu.edu/ ClientED/dog_fluids.asp Imagine YOU are a gas particle. You are going to be placed in a syringe with about 100 billion trillion other gas particles. How can we describe your behavior as a gas particle? How gas particles behave How you will behave when you are impersonating a gas particle z You are very small z So small that the sum of the volumes of all of the individual gas particles
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CH116lecture1P - UMass Boston, Chem 116 CHEM 116 Chemical...

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