134lecture35(apr08) - Racial/Ethnic Prejudice and...

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Unformatted text preview: Racial/Ethnic Prejudice and Discrimination: Racial/Ethnic Prejudice and Discrimination: Causes, Patterns and Consequences Causes, Patterns and Consequences 1. The Meaning of Prejudice, Social Distance, and Discrimination 2. The Vicious Cycle of P+D 3. Causes of P+D 4. Patterns of P+D Who is a “Timid Bigot?” Who Racial/Ethnic Prejudice and Discrimination: Racial/Ethnic Prejudice and Discrimination: Causes, Patterns and Consequences Causes, Patterns and Consequences 5. America’s Unique “Dilemma?” (Gunnar Myrdal) 6. Evidence of P+D Today: At ISU, in the USA, in the World? 7. Solutions? Prejudice, Social Distance, Prejudice, Social Distance, Discrimination and Hate Crimes Discrimination and Hate Crimes Prejudice: Literally means to prejudge another person or group. Not always bad. Concern with irrationally based negative attitudes. Social Distance: The degree of desired social intimacy The desired intimacy between groups. Prejudice, Social Distance, Prejudice, Social Distance, Discrimination and Hate Crimes Discrimination and Hate Crimes Discrimination: Overt action that denies opportunities for denies some and results in preferential treatment for others. Hate Crime: State of Iowa law and Ames ordinance passed July 1, 1990 (simple misdemeanor for Ames, a felony offense for the state). It includes anything done to: “Injure, oppress, intimidate, anything or interfere with someone’s rights or privileges.” Basic Concepts ((cont’d) Basic Concepts cont’d) Race: People who share biological traits deemed People biological socially significant. May not make much sense Extensive mixing for centuries Ethnic Group: People who share a cultural heritage, People cultural common language, religion, social identity. Basic Concepts ((cont’d) Basic Concepts cont’d) Minority: People distinguished by physical or cultural traits and are socially disadvantaged. traits socially Not just based on numbers Minorities lack power Do you know tthese people? Do you know hese people? Real Name New Name 1. Cherilyn Sarhisian 1. Cher 2. Cheryl Stoppelmoor Cheryl Stoppelmoor 2. Cheryl Ladd 3. Robert Allen Zimmerman 3. Bob Dylan 4. Anna May Bullock 4. Tina Turner 5. Ramon Estervez Ramon Estervez 5. Martin Sheen Why did they change their names? Racist U.S.? U.. S.. Racial Composition U S Racial Composition 1990 1998 2005 2050 White 83.9 82.6 81.3 72.8 Black 12.3 12.7 13.2 15.7 American Indian 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.1 THE VICIOUS CYCLE 1 1 PREJUDICE & DISCRIMINATION BEGIN 4 2 3 2 AS A RESULT OF PREJUDICE & DISCRIMINATION A GROUP IS SOCIALLY DISADVANTAGED 3 THIS DISADVANTAGE IS INTERPRETED AS EVIDENCE THAT THE MINORITY GROUP IS INFERIOR 4 THIS CREATES RENEWED PREJUDICE & DISCRIMINATION Theories off Prejudice Theories o Prejudice 1. Scapegoat Theory (Frustrated and Disadvantaged Unfairly Blame Others.) 2. Authoritarian Personality (Rigid and Conforming Persons, See Moral Issues as Clear-Cut. Strongly Ethnocentric) 3. Cultural Theory: People Learn to be Prejudiced. (Learn Desired “Social Distance” To Keep From Other People.) (Learn 4. Conflict Theory of Prejudice (Prejudice Used To Justify Oppression of Others. Elites May Foster It To Divide People.) PREJUDICE & DISCRIMINATION PREJUDICE DISCRIMINATION YES NO BIGOT FAIR WEATHER LIBERAL TIMID BIGOT ALL WEATHER LIBERAL YES NO Women and Blacks iin U.S.: “Minorities” Women and Blacks n U.S.: “Minorities” Prejudice Toward Both Women Actually Numeric Majority Parallels: High Social Visibility Assigned a “Place” Assigned Originally Forms of Property “Superstitious” Unable to Vote “Emotional, Not Rational” “Inferior” Mental Endowment Evidence off P + D Today: Evidence o P + D Today: In U.S., World-Wide, IISU? In U.S., World-Wide, SU? Weekly Earnings by Race and Gender: Hispanic Women Hispanic Men $337 $390 Black Women Black Men $400 $468 White Women White Men $468 $615 Total $523 Black IImprisonment Rates Black mprisonment Rates USA 3,109 per 100,100 South Africa 729 per 100,100 Life Expectancy att Birth Life Expectancy a Birth Whites 75.2 years African Americans 69.2 years Who IIs Most Likely tto Be a Victim Who s Most Likely o Be a Victim off Violent Crime? o Violent Crime? Blacks, Whites, Asians, Hispanics, Native Americans Native Americans – greatest risk Native Black-White – victim rates narrowing Black-White Whites – 82.2% of victims, 84.2% of population Whites Blacks – 14.7% victims, 12.1% of population Blacks Evidence cont’d. Evidence cont’d. • Univ. of Wisconsin “diversity” photo disaster is Univ. comparable to: • Ford Motor Co. of England “Faces at Ford” Ford blunder Is the Univ. racist? Is Ford? SOCIAL DISTANCE SCALE, SPRING 1999 RESPONSE CATEGORIES 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 CLOSE KINSHIP BY MARRIAGE CLOSE VERY GOOD FRIENDS AS MY NEIGHBORS SAME WORK GROUP SPEAKING ACQUAINTANCE ONLY AS VISITORS TO MY COUNTRY EXCLUDE FROM MY COUNTRY “MINORITY GROUP” SCORE EXCLUDE ITALIANS 2.32 2% JEWS CANADIANS TURKS AFRICAN AMERICANS CHINESE GERMANS HOMOSEXUALS ARABS RUSSIANS AMERICAN INDIANS LAOTIANS ANGLO AMERICANS 2.52 2.18 3.05 2.31 2.88 2.20 4.11 3.37 2.75 2.46 2.96 2.07 1% 1% 2% 2% 4% 1% 21% 9% 3% 1% 5% 1% CHANGE IN PREJUDICE 3.5 3 2.5 2 1975 1984 1999 1.5 1 0.5 0 ITALIANS AFRICAN AMERICANS JEWS CHINESE CHANGE IN PREJUDICE 6 5 4 1975 1984 1999 3 2 1 0 TURKS RUSSIANS ARABS HOMOSEXUALS GENDER 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 MALE FEMALE Are We All Prejudiced? Are We All Prejudiced? Stereotypes 1. Muslim religion supports terrorism supports Believed by Hispanics Whites 2. Catholics too controlled by church Asian Americans 57% Blacks 49% 3. Hispanics have too many children Asian Americans 68% Whites 50% 48% 41% Are We All Prejudiced? (cont’d) Stereotypes Stereotypes 4. Blacks want to live on welfare Believed by Asian Americans 31% Hispanics 26% 5. Jews choose money over people Blacks Hispanics 54% 43% 6. Asian-Americans are crafty and devious Hispanics Blacks 46% 41% Harris poll for NCCJ, 1994 Harris NCCJ Solutions? Solutions? How to react if your child uses racist language? How to react if your child is subject to racist abuse? Strategies for communities, organizations, societies? Solutions? Solutions? Solutions have roots based in conflict or functional theory: Solutions conflict functional Conflict Functionalism Hate crime legislation Job creation/education Forced school busing Promote positive social interaction Affirmative action Promote diversity ABA call for ban on death penalty Parents teach tolerance Which is most favored? Social Strategy tto Reduce Desired Social Strategy o Reduce Desired Social Distance Social Distance Influence of Previous Contacts on Desired Social Distance Negative Not Close Close Positive Second Second most most Third Third most most Most S.D. Most S.D. desired desired Least Least Parents’ Strategy tto Reduce Prejudice Parents’ Strategy o Reduce Prejudice Stereotyping may be one of first “skills” Stereotyping children learn, age 4-5. Be prejudiced by age of 7. Parent’s Strategy to Reduce Prejudice (cont’d) Parent’s Strategy to Reduce Prejudice (cont’d) 1. Don’t tolerate ethnic jokes, slurs 2. Use books, TV, news as tools 3. Answer questions directly, e.g. why dark skin? (Melanin in skin) 4. Provide interaction opportunities 5. Check your own prejudices (Mayo Clinic, February 2000) ...
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