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134lecture40(apr20)bw - Why are men paid more than women 1...

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1 © 2005 David Schweingruber Male-Female Pay Gap/ Demography April 20, 2005 http://www.iastate.edu/~soc.134 © 2005 David Schweingruber Why are men paid more than women? 1. Different work patterns Home-work conflict creates seniority gap Although women may choose different work patterns, their choices are constrained (e.g., by family wage gap and lack of child care) However, after accounting for work patterns, women make around 80% of what men do 2. Comparable-worth discrimination (women are paid less for comparable jobs) The “family wage” vs. “pin money” Women’s work is devalued 3. Pay discrimination (women are paid less for the same jobs) 4. Promotion gap Job ladders (gendered internal labor markets) “Glass ceiling” vs. “glass escalator” © 2005 David Schweingruber Top occupations by sex, 2001 Women’s Occupations 1. Sales worker, retail & personal services (97.6% female)-6,711,000 total women 2. Teacher, except college (74.9%) 3. Sales counter clerk (76.9%) 4. Secretary (98.4%) 5. Registered nurse (93.1%) 6. Nursing aid, orderly attendant (90.1%)
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