201.07 Population, Ecology, Urbanization

201.07 Population, - Population Urbanization and Ecology The study of Population growth and the development of Cities and their relationship with

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© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 1 Population, Urbanization, and Ecology The study of Population growth and the development of Cities and their relationship with the environment
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© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 2 Demographic Theories 1. Thomas Malthus held that population increases more quickly than food supply. 2. Karl Marx insisted that an excess of population is related to the availability of employment opportunities, not to a fixed supply of food. 3. Neo-Malthusians agree with many of Malthus’ ideas, but favor contraception for population control. 4. Demographic transition theory holds that the process of modernization is associated with three stages in population change: 1. high potential growth, transitional growth, and population stability. Fertility reduction policies are based on 1. family planning, 2. a developmentalist strategy 3. or a societalist perspective.
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© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 3 Population Demography is the science dealing with the size, distribution, composition, and changes in population. All population change within a society can be reduced to three factors: the birth rate, the death rate, and the migration rate into or out of the society.
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© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 4 Population Terms Fertility is the incidence of childbearing in a society’s population. 1. Fecundity refers to the maximum potential childbearing ability of the women of a society. It is sharply reduced in practice by cultural norms, finances, and personal choice. 2. Demographers measure fertility using the crude birth rate, or the number of live births in a given year for every thousand people in a population. Mortality is the incidence of death in a society’s population. 1. Demographers measure mortality using the crude death rate, or the number of deaths in a given year for every thousand people in a population. 2. The infant mortality rate is the number of deaths among infants under one year of age for every thousand live births in a given year. 3. Life expectancy is the average life span of a society’s population.
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© Copyright 2010 Alan S. Berger 5 Birth, Death and life Expectancy Rates Around the World
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6 Population Terms Migration is the movement of people into and out of a specified territory. 1. It may be voluntary or involuntary. Voluntary migration may be explained by push and pull factors. 2. Movement into a territory is termed immigration and is measured by the in-migration rate , the number of people entering an area for every thousand people in the population. 3. Movement out of a territory is termed emigration and is measured by the out-migration rate , the number of people leaving an area for every thousand people in the population.
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2011 for the course SOCIOLOGY 220 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '10 term at Rutgers.

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201.07 Population, - Population Urbanization and Ecology The study of Population growth and the development of Cities and their relationship with

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