AmInds1900-2000 - American Indians in the 20th Century...

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American Indians in the 20 th Century: Issues and Debates History Eras 1890-1920 Neglect, misery, despair 1920s-1940s Period of reform, constrained self-government. Cultural/religious recognition, pan-Indianism 1950s Counter-reform: termination, relocation, urbanization 1960s-1970s: Activism inspired by civil rights (Courts start supporting legal claims) 1980s-1990s: Growing resurgence of culture, growing emphasis on 1870-1890 Final Defeat US starts reneging on treaties Loss of political self-control Much land earlier reserved to native peoples is lost to whites Many reservations become “checkerboarded” with whites owning land inside reservations Population reaches low point of 200,000 in 1890. (From 2 million – 30 million before Europeans.) Near genocide. 1890-1920 Largely ignored by whites Starvation, despair, surviving on food rations only sometimes delivered Continued attacks on political, cultural autonomy Boarding schools: children taken from parents, forced cultural & 1920-1940 Age of reform, concern Anthropologists & missionaries: respect culture, religion, language. First protection for religious, cultural freedom. Citizenship 1924. Some were US citizens before by treaty. Unilateral by US to deny special status of indigenous people, who did
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not generally want this Indian Reorganization Act 1934. Permits self-government, but under rules of US making 1940s, 1950s 1946 Indian Claims Commission. Suppose to settle all land claims in 5 years. (Still going.) 1940s National Congress of American Indians (still exists). Pan-Indian, grounded in boarding schools. 1950s Counter-movement. Back to forced assimilation, forced relocation to cities. –½ become urban Boarding schools, forced adoptions continue Termination = cancel treaties, force people to be legally like everyone else. 1960s-1970s Inspired by Civil Rights Movement, renewed activism Disruptive protests, occupations Militant exercise of treaty rights Fish-ins etc. Militant exercise of treaty rights as a protest. Occupation of Alcatraz Island 1969-1972
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2011 for the course SOCIOLOGY 220 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '10 term at Rutgers.

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AmInds1900-2000 - American Indians in the 20th Century...

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