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Anthro 104 Midterm Terms - Sanchez Karen Sanchez...

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Sanchez Karen Sanchez Anthropology 104 Midterm Textbook Terms 1. Cultural values : Ideas, beliefs, values, and attitudes learned as a member of a social group. 2. Ethnology: The study and explanation of cultural similarities and differences. 3. Ethnography : An anthropological method that generally involves living in a place for an extended period of time, participating in and observing daily life, and then writing about the culture or the place. 4. Symbol: A sign that consistently but arbitrarily represents an object or meaning; the basis of communication within a culture. 5. Clan : A kinship group whose members assume, but need not demonstrate, descent from a common ancestor. 6. Culture: Learned patterns of thought and behavior characteristic of a particular social group. 7. Ethnocentrism: The assumption that one’s own group’s lifestyle, values, and patterns of adaptation are superior to all others. 8. Ritual: A set of acts, usually involving religion or magic, following a sequence established by tradition. 9. Communal: Shared with a group 10. Cross-cultural: A standard form of anthropological analysis using the comparison of traditions and practices from different societies. 11. REM (Rapid eye movement): The part of the sleep cycle when dreaming is done. 12. Séance: A ritual, usually held at night, designed to promote direct contact between people and spirits. 13. Age grade: A social category of people who fall within a particular culturally distinguished age range; age grades often undergo life cycle rituals as a group. 14. Chiefdom: A society more complex than a tribal society, characterized by social ranking, a redistributive economy, and a centralized political authority.
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Sanchez 15. Cultural relativism: The principle that all cultural systems are inherently equal in value and, therefore, that each cultural systems within a single society; multiculturalism. 16. Levirate: The practice by which a man is expected to marry the wife or wives of a deceased brother; commonly found in patrilineal descent systems.
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