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Group Paper Outline - Group Paper Outline Introduction WHAT...

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Group Paper Outline? Introduction: WHAT ARE GMO’S? Genetically modified foods (GM foods or GMO foods) are foods derived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Genetically modified organisms have had specific changes introduced into their DNA by genetic engineering techniques. Typically, genetically modified foods are transgenic ( pertaining to, or containing a gene or genes transferred from another species) plant products: soybean , corn , canola , and cotton seed oil . GMOs are most commonly used to refer to crop plants created for human or animal consumption using the latest molecular biology techniques. These plants have been modified in the laboratory to enhance desired traits such as increased resistance to herbicides or improved nutritional content. The enhancement of desired traits has traditionally been undertaken through breeding, but conventional plant breeding methods can be very time consuming and are often not very accurate. Genetic engineering, on the other hand, can create plants with the exact desired trait very rapidly and with great accuracy. HISTORY GM foods were first put on the market in 1996. The Monsanto Company is a US-based multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. Monsanto is the leading producer of genetically engineered (GE) seed ; it provides the technology in 90% of the genetically engineered seeds used in the US market. It is the world's largest conventional seed company. Monsanto's development and marketing of genetically engineered seed and bovine growth hormone , as well as its aggressive litigation, political lobbying practices, seed commercialization practices and "strong-arming" of the seed industry have made the company controversial around the world and a primary target of the alter- globalization movement and environmental activists . HOW IS IT DONE? Genetic modification involves the insertion or deletion of genes. In the process of cisgenesis , genes are artificially transferred between organisms that could be conventionally bred. In the process of transgenesis , genes from a different species are inserted, which is a form of horizontal gene transfer . In nature this can occur when exogenous DNA penetrates the cell membrane for any reason. To do this artificially may require transferring genes as part of an attenuated virus genome or physically inserting the extra DNA into the nucleus of the intended host using a microsyringe, or as a coating on gold nanoparticles fired from a gene gun . However, other methods exploit natural forms of gene transfer, such as the ability of Agrobacterium to transfer genetic material to plants. CONTROVERSY Safety Issues Ecological Concerns Economic Concerns ADVANTAGES
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Pest resistance Crop losses from insect pests can be staggering, resulting in devastating financial loss for farmers and starvation in developing countries. Consumers do not want to eat food that has been treated with pesticides because of potential health hazards, and run-off of agricultural wastes from excessive use of pesticides and fertilizers can poison the water supply and cause harm to the environment. Growing GM foods
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