Chapter 51 - Diuretic Agents.ppt - Diuretic Agents Chapter 51 Classes of Diuretics \u2022 \u2022 \u2022 \u2022 \u2022 Thiazide and Thiazide-like Diuretics Loop

Chapter 51 - Diuretic Agents.ppt - Diuretic Agents Chapter...

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Diuretic Agents Diuretic Agents Chapter 51
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Classes of Diuretics Thiazide and Thiazide-like Diuretics Loop Diuretics Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors Potassium-Sparing Diuretics Osmotic Diuretics
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Function of Diuretic Agents Increase the amount of urine produced by the kidneys Increase sodium excretion
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Indications for Diuretic Use Edema associated with congestive heart failure Acute pulmonary edema Liver disease (including cirrhosis) Renal disease Hypertension Conditions that cause hyperkalemia
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Sites of Action of Diuretics
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Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics Hydrochlorothiazide ( HydroDIURIL ) Chlorothiazide ( Diuril ) Bendroflumethiazide ( Naturetin ) Benzthiazide ( Exna ) Hydroflumethiazide ( Diucardin ) Methyclothiazide ( Aquatensen ) Polythiazide ( Renese ) Trichlormethiazide ( Diurese )
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Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics (cont.) Actions Action is to block the chloride pump Keeps chloride and the sodium in the tubule to be excreted in the urine, thus preventing the reabsorption of both in the vascular system Indications Treatment of edema associated with CHF, liver, or renal disease Monotherapy or adjuncts for the treatment of hypertension
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Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics (cont.) Pharmacokinetics Well absorbed for the GI tract, metabolized in the liver and excreted in the urine. Contraindications Allergy to thiazides or sulfonamides Fluid and electrolyte imbalances, and renal and liver disease Bipolar disorders Pregnancy and lactation
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Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics (cont.) Caution Gout Systemic lupus Diabetes Hyperparathyroidism Adverse Effects Related to interference with the normal regulatory mechanisms of the nephron Hypokalemia Weakness, muscle cramps, arrhythmias
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Thiazide and Thiazide-Like Diuretics (cont.) Adverse Effects (cont.) Decreased calcium excretion Altered (elevated) blood glucose levels Urine will be slightly alkalinized Increased risk for bladder infections Drug-to-Drug Interactions Cholestyramine or colestipol Digoxin Antidiabetic agents Increased risk of Lithium toxicity
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