# Lecture1 - Principles of Physical Science Become familiar...

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Principles of Physical Science Become familiar with the contributions of key 17 th -18 th century scientists i.e. Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, Newton Theory vs. Law Law: A concise Physical Universal Observable (what) Theory: An Experimentally validated Conclusion of how a process in Nature works (why) It is NOT conjecture or speculation 4 steps of the Scientific Method Identify the problem or analyze known facts-data Create a hypothesis Perform experiments Reproduce experiments and perform controls Draw conclusions or interpret data Arithmetic (Add, Subtract, Multiply, Divide) Decimals (Significant Figures) and Exponents (Scientific Notation)

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Vectors Scalars vs. Vectors Scalars: Position, Distance, Speed, Mass, Length, Time, Inertia, Area, Volume, Density, Temperature, Energy, Work, Power Vectors: Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration, Force, Momentum Motion in 2-Dimensional Vector Space Graphing in 2-D Creating X and Y vector components Adding and subtracting Vectors and Scalars Using Geometry
Displacement vs. Distance Distance is a scalar It has no direction Displacement is a vector Direction matters Significant because you can drive around in circles but your net distance is all that matters

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Vector Arithmetic Addition Head to tail Connect the tail of one to the head of the other Parallelogram Tail to tail and then draw a parallelogram Connect the joined tails to the joined heads Addition is commutative Scalars cannot be added or subtracted from vectors Multiplication Scalar X Vector = Vector (with same direction as original Vector) Vector X Vector = Vector (we will not do this!) Dot product or Cross product results
Pythagorean Theorem Pythagorean theorem: a 2 + b 2 = c 2 Sines: sin A = a/c, sin B = b/c Cosines: cos A = b/c, cos B = a/c. Tangents: tan A = a/b, tan B = b/a Adding Vectors ? 1 + ? 2 = Z, can be performed by adding components and using the Pythagorean theorem: ? 1 + ? 2 = X ? 1 + ? 2 = Y Z = X 2 + Y 2 ? 2 ? 2 ? 2 ? 1 ? 1 ? 1

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Geometry Volume Area Perimeter and Circumference Surface Area Radius Pythagorean Theorem Sin, Cos, Tan, ArcSin, ArcCos, ArcTan
Common Geometric Shapes Prove, using a rectangle that the area of a triangle is bh/2.

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Mechanics Force: F = ma, (Newton’s 2 nd Law) Gravity (g = 10 m/s 2 ) Weight: Wt. = mg Momentum: p = mv Inelastic, Perfectly inelastic, elastic collisions Conservation Equations of Motion Tension, Pulleys Mechanical Advantage (leverage) Projectile motion, Springs (Hooks Law), Friction
Newton’s Laws Law 1: An object will maintain its state of inertia until acted upon by a force Law 2: F = m a Law 3: For every force acting upon an object, the object exerts an equal and opposite force

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Force Changes in acceleration result from a Net Force (Newton’s First Law)
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Lecture1 - Principles of Physical Science Become familiar...

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