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COMS FINAL STUDY GUIDE 07:00 1. Definition and Distinctions of Types of Speeches – info vs. persuasion Inform : to share information with others to enhance their knowledge or understanding of information, concepts, and ideas you present Objects About anything tangible time limit will determine amount of detail Procedures Discusses how something works or describes process that produces particular outcome Audience should be able to describe, understand, or perform procedure you have described Usually focuses on how process is completed or how something can be accomplished In workshops or other training situations in which people learn skills People Be selective Relate key elements in person’ career, personality, or other significant life features so that can build to particular point, rather than just recite facts about individual Events: goal is to describe event in concrete, tangible terms and to bring experience to life for audience Ideas: more abstract than other types key to gaining and maintaining interest lies in selection of supporting material Persuasion : process of attempting to change or reinforce attitudes, beliefs, values, or behavior propositions of fact, value, and policy 2. Fallacies Logical : false reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate Casual : making a faulty cause-and-effect connection between two things or events
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Bandwagon : someone who argues that “everybody things that, so you should too” Either-or : oversimplifies issue by offering only two choices and ignores fact that there may be other solutions Hasty generalization : person who tries to draw conclusion from too little evidence or nonexistent evidence Personal attack : on someone connected with an idea, rather than addressing idea itself Red herring : someone whore argues against an issue by bringing up irrelevant facts or arguments to distract others from issue Appeal to misplaced authority : using someone without appropriate credentials or expertise to endorse an idea or product 3. Support Material Options Verbal: illustrations, explanations, descriptions, definitions, analogies, statistics, and opinions Visual: objects, charts, graphs, posters, maps, models, and computer-generated graphics Audio: music or sounds Sources of Supporting Material You and People You Know If self-aware when selecting topic, may be own source Don’t necessarily need to consult Internet or run to library for supporting material Don’t overlook own expertise and experience or that of people you know The Internet Internet: vast collection of hundreds of thousands of computers accessible to millions of people all over the world World Wide Web: most popular Internet information-delivery system Directory: Internet site that offers user ever-more-specific categories through which to search the Web Search engine: Internet site that works much like traditional card catalog or index, allowing user to perform subject or keyword search of Web
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