West Civ (wealth and exploration

West Civ (wealth and exploration - The Emergence of The...

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Unformatted text preview: The Emergence of The Emergence of European Dominance… Nations and Empires The Beginning of The Beginning of European Empires Opportunity… The emergence of World Markets End of the Middle Ages The “Renaissance” Age of Exploration What enabled them to do it? The Nation State Emergence of Spain, France, Exploration…Wealth! Early World Trade The Silk road was one of the first trade routes to join the Eastern and the Western worlds Early Trade Rome opened up trade with India Routes included the “Incense Route” and the “Spice Route” Europe's Development and World Markets The opening and closing of markets Why and how were trade routes cut Rise of Islam Muslim Raiders cut routes Muslim expansion seized ports Land and Sea Mediterranean Land routes severed Expansion under the Prophet Muhammad, 622­632 Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphs, 632­661 Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661­750 Europe needed access to markets…started exploring The Age of Vikings Who were they? Warriors Raiders Colonizers Fishermen Traders Where did they come from? Scandinavia Norsemen Norway Sweden Danes Vikings “Norsemen” Warriors Raiders Raised to wield axe and sword Worshipped Warrior God’s and Valhalla Raided Europe from 793 to 1066 They arrived, unexpectedly, plundered, burned, killed or enslaved the inhabitants from England to North Africa Men of the Sea Perfected the sleek and speedy “Longship” Strong and sturdy on open oceans (sail) Lightning­fast (oars) Without this crucial advance in ship technology, the Vikings would never Without this crucial advance in ship technology, the Vikings would never have become a dominant force in medieval warfare, politics, and trade Early Exploration The Vikings were the first to evolve from coastal sailing to ocean exploration They developed Ocean­going cargo vessels Facilitated far­flung trade Colonized Iceland, Greenland, and America “Runestones” discovered (myths or not?) Greece Jerusalem England Minnesota Vikings discovered Christianity (1000 to 1100) Viking threat was gone… “Doors” were opened…People changed… Renaissance Change in the way people thought Middle Age thinking …out! Merchants Trade Guilds Textiles Renaissance Rebirth in thought Classical teachings Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo Philosophical movement Intellectual / Rational approach Individualism….profits! “God is still important, but the individual is important too,…God gives us the power to shape our own destiny” Sixteenth­century Europe The New Monarchs Italy well­developed as economic power through trade, manufacturing, finance Yet England, France, and Spain surge ahead in 16th century, innovative new tax revenues England: Henry VIII Fines and fees for royal services; confiscated monastic holdings France: Louis XI, Francis I New taxes on sales, salt trade The Spanish Inquisition Founded by Fernando and Isabel in 1478 Original task: search for secret Christian practitioners of Judaism or Islam, later search for Protestants Spread to Spanish holdings outside Iberian peninsula in western hemisphere Imprisonment, executions Intimidated nobles who might have considered Protestantism Archbishop of Toledo imprisoned 1559­1576 The European States System No imperial authority to mediate regional disputes Peace of Westphalia (1648) after Thirty Years’ War European states to be recognized as sovereign and equal Religious, other domestic affairs protected Warfare continues: opposition to French expansion, Seven Years’ War Balance of Power tenuous Innovations in military technology proceed rapidly Effects of The Plague Black Death Black Plague Bubonic Plague Transported to Europe in ships 1348 (Rats / Fleas) China (pop. 123M to 65M) Europe (pop. 70M to 45M) Mobility and opportunity Created labor shortages More land made available…”Opened Doors” The Famine of 1315-1317 The Famine By 1300 Europeans were farming almost all the land they could cultivate. A population crisis developed. Climate changes in Europe produced three years of crop failures between 1315-17 because of excessive rain. As many as 15% of the peasants in some English villages died. Timing continued The condition of the church, the main social support system of the time was poor. The Schism and the lack of a unified authority damaged the churches ability to react to problems The clergy was scandalized by improper behavior and excessive luxury Reformers in many area were calling for change and the church was preoccupied with the issue of what it called Heresy The Ottomans had taken control of the Holy land and all attempt to regain it ended in failure Timing continued The One Hundred Years War had put a drain on the finances of England and France The Kings could not pay their armies Un­paid mercenary soldiers began to wonder the countryside in search of plunder and terrorized the people Where did it come from In Oct 1347 twelve Genoese trade ship pulled into the harbor of Messina in Sicily. The sailors on these ships were all dying The ships were coming from the region of the Black Sea where they had loaded a cargo of goods for trade and without their knowledge had also taken on the seeds of their own destruction {fleas infected with Plague carried aboard by rats} Rapid Spread of the Plague By the Winter of 1348 the plague had spread into France through the port of Marseilles, and into North Africa by way of the city of Tunis. The plague then traveled along the inland trade route arriving in Spain and Northern France by Spring. By Summer it was found in Florence, Rome, Paris, and London. By Mid­year 1350 the Plague had march its way completely across Europe Effects of the Renaissance A leap forward… Birth of the Individual Technological advancements Gun making “Age of Gunpowder Empires” Printing Press (Gutenberg Bible) Ships “Age of Sail” Age of Exploration, Trade, and Empires Early Exploration …Opportunities for wealth Portuguese Needed new trade routes Churches work Location…on the Ocean Prince Henry “The Navigator” 1390­1460 Goal (round Africa – open ocean) Outside sight of land Established a “Center” Study Navigation Instruments / Compass Math Built Ships The Caravel (highly manueverable/2­3 masted ship Rounding the Cape of Africa Bartolomeu Dias Portuguese 1st to round Cape of Storms Cape of Good Hope 16th month voyage Explored New World Brazil Died in storm Cape of Good Hope Wealth and Danger Routes to the East Alternate route / Sail west… Lose sight of land!! Dangers Myths Navigation!! (sun and stars…birds!) Edge of the world / sea monsters Best guess…. Equipment (latitude/longitude) compass 1300’s / sextant (1731) / clock (1762) Food and water (Grog / scurvy)…death Weather!! Unknown Calculations of world wrong Much larger Knew nothing of America Viking explorers? The Rise of the Nation State …Establishing Order Emergence from the “Middle” or Dark Ages…nasty, brutish, short life The formation of Nations out of Feudal Europe…Concentration of power – “Absolutism” Absolute authority Sovereignty…ultimate authority “The Nation State” Monarchs were able to to subordinate religion to the needs of the state…subdued, removed, destroyed all in their path How were they able to wield such power and influence over not only their country, but a great part of the known world? The Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire One of the largest empires in history The first “Global” empire Origins of the Empire Union of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile… created Spain Drove the “Moors” out of Spain Established themselves as the “Catholic” rulers of Spain Religious “Purity”…unity The “Inquisition”…targeted religious converts (ex: Jews, Muslims, later Protestants) Empires and Exploration Discovering a New World Era of Exploration and Discovery Unprecedented increase in knowledge Understanding a world/New Continents Wealth and Empires Viewed as one of most important phenomena in terms of effect on modern world The emergence of Western Civilization / Europe as the leaders of the Modern World Spain, Columbus, and the start of a new era Ferdinand and Isabella fund exploration A New World Christopher Columbus Italian (Genoese) Theory of shorter route 3,550 miles…(11,600) Rejected by Portuguese Welcomed by Spain After continually lobbying at the Spanish court and two years of negotiations, he finally had success in 1492 One of the most influential men in history! Voyages of Columbus 1st Voyage – 1492 (3 ships – thought he’d found Asian islands and riches) 2nd Voyage – 1493 ( 17 ships – 1200 men to colonize/forts/decimated inhabitants) 3rd Voyage – 1498 ( 6 ships – 3 years/landed on continent/tyrannical/arrested) 4th Voyage – 1502 ( shipwrecked / returned to Spain…did not die in poverty) Did not recognize the enormity of his mistake Conquering Conquering Meso­America Empires Mayans Aztecs Chitzen Itcha Cortés Uaxactun Conquistadors Conquistadors …Spanish Glory Hernán Cortés Expedition of 1519 11 Ships, 500 men, 13 horses, cannons Landed in the Yucatan Peninsula in Mayan territory Sailed from there to (Vera Cruz)….did he burn his ships? Conquer the interior of Mexico Capital of the Aztecs (Tenochtilan / Mexico City ) Moctezuma II/Aztecs – not popular (ruthless) Cortes allied himself with several tribes Welcomed by Moctezuma (trick?) Spanish massacred many of the leaders Aztecs revolted / drove out Spaniards / stoned Moctezuma II “New Spain” Defeated and Outnumbered Regrouped / recovered Technology…gun powder! Conquered the Capital…renamed it Mexico City Campaign to conquer all of Meso­America Native Allies Re­attacked / 4 month siege Cortes lost 2/3 of soldiers Conquered the Aztecs Conquered all of the Yucatan peninsula King Charles I of Spain appointed Cortés as governor of the newly conquered territory “New Spain” Conquering More Empires Conquering More Empires South America and the Incas Francisco Pizarro Expeditions 1st (80) failed 1532 (200)...successful Inca Civil War weakened Incas Inca leader “Atachualpa” Poor leader Caught…ransomed…executed Captured capital Conquered Incas Destruction of Empires? Destruction of Empires? Why / How did empires fall? How did 200 soldiers conquer an 80,000 man army? Weaknesses of Empires They were weakened by Civil War Aztecs and Incas centralized their power They were ruthless to neighboring cultures Spanish were able to get many allies Power of Spanish Guns, Armor, Horses Became leaderless…. “Guns, Germs, and Steel”…PBS Spanish Wealth…. Spanish Wealth…. Gold and Silver beyond comprehension… Gold mines, Silver mines, Sugar Plantations Encomienda – Royal authority to exact tribute Brutality and ruthlessness (Hispaniola (7M to 29K)) Repartimiento – Royal authority to employ forced labor 200 years extracted 80% of South America’s silver and 70% of their gold Height of Spanish power? The Most Powerful Nation on Earth The Most Powerful Nation on Earth …for how long? Spain did not have commercial infrastructure Lacked enough ships to haul fortune Lacked economic capacity to handle fortune Spent wealth as fast as they gained it Over ½ silver went right to China! Fortunes ended up in Antwerp, Amsterdam, London… Empire was vast…and expensive to maintain The New World and much of Europe Spanish Territory Spanish Territory Charles V of Spain inherited… Spain Netherlands Austria Sardinia Sicily Holy Roman Empire New World Spain’s High Tide Spain’s High Tide Philip II Lack of infrastructure Money went out as fast as it came in Religious zealot (Reformation and Protestant revolts) Revolts in Netherlands (50 years)…drained wealth Funded by England Enemies and Rivals England (Henry VIII…made England Protestant) (Mary I (Bloody Mary)…Mary Queen of Scots (Catholic) Elizabeth I (according to Philip was a bastard child of Henry) Philip sent the Spanish Armada to England in 1588 to Spanish Armada Spanish Armada Spanish Fleet 160 Ships (20 to 30 thousand) Older technology and tactics English Fleet Almost 200 Ships Newer design Slower/built for boarding Faster / more maneuverable Passing Broadsides! Two Fleets equal…terms of cannon 1588 Spain sailed for England Unite with forces from Netherlands to invade England Defeat of the Armada Defeat of the Armada July 1588 Armada spotted off coast of England Armada anchored near Calais, France, hoping to join troops scheduled to sail from the Netherlands English fleet intercepted: battles off of Plymouth…The Isle of Wight No decisive victory English ordered ships set on fire to be sent against the armada A panic broke the Spanish formation Battle of Gravelines, on August 8, the Spanish were defeated Armada sailed home with remaining ships Sailed around England “Protestant Wind”…hurricane that decimated Armada off Ireland 67 of the original 130 ships reached Spain, most in poor condition Spain down but not out…rebuilt more modern ships…remained a great power Portuguese Empire Portuguese Empire Colonies/Ports in: Brazil, Africa (Gold Coast), India, SE Asia Built fortresses along Africa and India (dominated early trade) Height of power controlled 50 ports Plantations in Brazil (Sugar and slavery) Portuguese Empire Portuguese Empire …overmatched Ruthless…expensive to maintain Officers corrupt Merchants selfish…did not always share w/ state Did not develop infrastructure either Too small…. England and France entered into Indian Ocean they were overmatched! Dutch Republic Dutch Republic The Act of Abjuration 1581 The formal declaration of independence of the Dutch Low Countries from Spain… ….Background THE REFORMATION The Protestant Reformation The Protestant Reformation …Great Religious Revolt Catholicism dominated Europe! Every aspect of life…including governments Very powerful and very wealthy Also very corrupt! Alexander VI (Rodrigo Borgia )…parties, concubines, children! Lucretia Borgia…many deaths and assassinations involved Borgia’s BUT, the Protestant Reformation of Marin Luther and John Calvin was NOT based on illicit practices…. …but was theological! Martin Luther Martin Luther (1483­1546) German Monk / Ordained Priest / Doctor of theology Luther questioned: Lack of compassion for the poor The buying and selling of positions in the Church “Indulgences”…exemptions of sin in exchange for money Ninety­Five Theses Ninety­Five Theses Luther’s differences with church Nailed them to the door of church Printing Press new…spread rapidly Beliefs Importance of Faith and Grace Relationship with God Priests not needed to mediate Church demanded he recant ideas Pope excommunicated him!! Pope Leo X issued Papal bull “Exsurge Domine” Forty­one errors found in Luther’s Ninety­Five Theses Spread of the Protestant Faith Spread of the Protestant Faith Edict of Worms Branded Luther an outlaw! Luther seized (for own protection) Prince Frederick and placed in Wartberg Castle While in hiding translated bible to German Wrote extensively…Christian practices and beliefs Never imprisoned Became too popular in German states Married and live long life Protestant movement Grows Protestant movement Grows John Calvin (1509­1564) French reformer that agreed with Luther Preached salvation by faith… Lived in exile in Geneva (Can’t purchase salvation…can’t work your way in… salvation comes through faith…God chooses) Reformed Churches Calvinism and Lutheranism spread rapidly French Huguenots, Puritans, Calvinists, Lutherans, etc. Catholicism Fights Back Catholicism Fights Back Counter Reformation Council of Trent Internal Reform Reaffirmed basic doctrine Reasserted the need for celibacy of clergy Created New Orders to purify church (educate and carry message) Society of Jesus (Ignatius Loyola) Jesuits (Francis Xavier) Reformation spreads to Netherlands Reformation spreads to Netherlands Protestant movement – Civil War with Spain …Dutch Republic Not an overnight movement! “80 Years War…” Series of Unions Peace of Munster (1648) Spain recognized Dutch Independence Dutch Empire Dutch Empire Economic wealth Financial Center of Europe Bank of Amsterdam Stock Exchange Merchant Fleets 1600 – over 10,000 commercial ships Agricultural efficiency Dutch East India Co (Joint Stock Company) 1540 to 1715 reclaimed 364,565 acres from sea! Developed crop rotation Colonies in Africa, Asia, America (New York) Remained influential and successful Suffered as Portugal (not big enough to compete) The Rise of France Turmoil…Civil Wars…Catholics v. Protestants Religious strife (Huguenots) Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre Henry IV…1589 Made peace with various groups Converted to Catholicism (Huguenot…but realized that most of France was still loyal to the Pope) Edict of Nantes…era of religious toleration The Rise of France Louis the XIII Ruled for 3 decades (Cardinal Richelieu) Increased the power of the monarchy! Heavy handed Undermined the power of the nobles Increased the “bureaucracy”…centralized power Set the stage for his heir ….Perhaps the most powerful ruler of all time! Louis XIV (The “Sun King,” 1643­ 1715) L’état, c’est moi: “The State – that’s me.” Magnificent palace at Versailles, 1670s, becomes his court Largest building in Europe 1,400 fountains 25,000 fully grown trees transplanted Power centered in court, important nobles pressured to maintain presence A True King “I am the State” Louis the XIV Crafted the “Absolute Monarchy” He was the source of all power in France How did he achieve it What did he do? Gained power and controlled through “Loyalty” Created a government that he controlled Used the “Aristocracy”…or really did NOT use them! Let them play…left them alone Just stopped using them The “Sun King” Created a “Bureaucracy” Inherited 600... Grew to 10,000 All owed allegiance to him Created an army of “Local Officials”…collected taxes for him! Created a modern Army Created a large army of Professional soldiers Trained and educated for the “Art of War”…through the French Military Academy No longer would he, “The King” lead them into battle…but trained General’s would! Engineers would determine the outcome of battles An Army of 300,000 would ensure his power was great both outside and inside France!!! The Rise of France Louis the XIV represented the “High Tide” of France…reigned for 72 years!! More money was going out than coming in Wars emptied the “coffers” His Grand Palace of Versailles represented his extravagance Was said to have possessed a diamond encrusted robe worth $25 M! Legacy Who pays for such extravagance? The Poor were taxed…and taxed…and taxed Classes…the Third Estate (Class) paid taxes to Louis, the Church, and their local Aristocracy!!! Did lead France to greatness Demonstrated that absolute power could bring order to a divided nation But also that absolute power has to be checked He died in 1715 The Rise of England The conquering of, and the rise of England William the Conqueror (1066) Norman (Normandy France)…was NOT French! Defeated…. A good Administrator…Leader Realized that he needed the support of the people Did not rule with iron fist! Consulted with “most powerful” subjects Knights, Burgesses, Wealth (not just nobles) “Parlays”….became Parliament Representation based on property!!!…not on The Rise of England England developed a “Representative” Govt Parliament grew…The Monarchy became a “Constitutional Monarchy” High points in the growth of Democracy… The Magna Carta…1215 Signed by King John…forced to! First Document to Limit the Power of the King “Rulers are subject to law” Subjects have rights and liberties The Rise of England Turmoil and Civil War Claims to the throne…two families War of the Roses (1455­1485) Tudors emerged victorious Henry VII Consolidated power Changed the make­up of govt in England Checked the power of the nobility Brought in “Commoners”…wealthy Henry VIII Inherited a powerful position Realized the limits of power Made concessions to Parliament in order to gain their support Also wielded great power English Reformation…Catholic church out...the Protestant Church was in! Acts of Supremacy! Henry VIII announced that the King of England was the “Defender of the Faith” and the leader of the Church of England…NOT the Pope!!! WHY? Henry VIII Wanted a new wife! Six wives Was not a “Peaceful” separation Two beheaded!! More than a little blood was shed Heirs??? Did have a son…Edward VI Only reigned 5 yrs (Councils ruled) Left a mess when he died The Rise of England Lady Jane Grey Cousin…9 days Mary Daughter of Henry VIII Catholic! Tried to restore Catholicism to England “Bloody Mary”… burned Protestants at the stake Ruled for 5 years…Married a Spaniard No heir Elizabeth I The Making of an Empire! Elizabeth’s reign England’s “Golden Age” 1558 to 1603 (45 yrs) National Unity Growth of an Empire North America “Virginia”…Virgin Queen Economic prosperity Victorious over Spain (1588) London became a center of commerce Merchant class growth English Culture and Nationalism Shakespeare James VI & I Elizabeth died with no heir King of Scotland (James VI from 1567 to 1625) King of England (and Ireland) as James I from 1603 to 1625 Legacy Ended Tudor line Established Stuart line Combined thrones Empire began to flourish (East India Co) European Wars! James I and the Thirty Years War Thirty Years War Thirty Years War Considered one of the most brutal and devastating conflicts in European history Destruction and Death… Some areas lost nearly 1/3 rd of population Sweden alone destroyed over 18,000 villages and 1,500 towns A religious war…Protestants v. Catholics Involved all of Europe… Everyone participated at one time or another or constantly over 30 yr period England, France, Russia, Sweden, Denmark, Spain, all the areas of Germany, etc….. Thirty Years War Holy Roman Empire Voltaire….”The Holy Roman Empire was neither Holy, nor Roman, nor an Empire” It was a “Political Entity” Consisted of over 2000 territories organized into about 300 districts Ruled by 7 electorates 6 Princes 1 King (Bohemia) Elected one emperor…”The Holy Roman Emperor” Thirty Years War Thirty Years War Causes Seven Electorates 4 Catholic…3 Protestant! 1618 Emperor dies Protestants name Frederick V Emperor Catholics name Ferdinand Emperor After 2 years of conflict the Catholics prevail Countries are drawn into the conflict Thirty Years War Thirty Years War Involvement Danish intervention Swedish intervention French intervention Treaty of Westphalia Everyone tired Decided to divide Empire into…300 provinces! Small concessions…nothing major…no big differences in the map of Europe English Empire English Empire English Revolutions Turmoil and resentment between the “court” and the “country” Court (Aristocracy, Church, Royal officials) Country (Merchants, Entrepreneurs, Land owners) Religious differences Anglicans Catholics Puritans…Calvinists Civil War / Revolutions English Empire English Empire Charles I Suspended Parliament 1629…visions of Louis XIV! Attempted to arrest members of Parliament Revolution! Oliver Cromwell Natural leader…good military sense Leaders and supporters of Parliament raised a citizen army that defeated Charles I Charles was executed! English Empire English Empire Oliver Cromwell led England for 11 years without a King of England Upon his death a new King was appointed Charles II…”Played Well” His heir was his brother James II Not as smart as Charles II! Charles II Known as a “Foolish and Fearless Catholic” His heavy hand resulted in another Revolt Glorious Revolution Glorious Revolution Parliament brought in another legitimate heir to the throne William of Orange…married to Mary (daughter of James II) William and Mary Parliamentary forces again prevailed William defeated James II Became co­monarchs Established legitimacy and stability to the throne The Glorious Revolution was the LAST revolution in England’s history!! Constitutional States England and Netherlands develop institutions of popular representation England: constitutional monarchy Netherlands: republic English Civil War, 1642­1649 Begins with opposition to royal taxes Religious elements: Anglican church favors complex ritual, complex church hierarchy, opposed by Calvinist Puritans King Charles I and parliamentary armies clash King loses, is beheaded in 1649 The Glorious Revolution (1688­ 1689) Puritans take over, becomes a dictatorship Monarchy restored in 1660, fighting resumes Resolution with bloodless coup called Glorious Revolution King James II deposed, daughter Mary and husband William of Orange take throne Shared governance between crown and parliament The Dutch Republic King Philip II of Spain attempts to suppress Calvinists in Netherlands, 1566 Large­scale rebellion follows, by 1581 Netherlands declares independence Based on a representative parliamentary system Other Countries of Europe Other Countries of Europe Austria Russia Ruled by the Hapsburgs Ruled by the Romanovs Prussia Hoenzollerens Early Russia Early Russian Expansion Russian The Mongols Invade Russia The Ivan the Great (r. 1462-1505) (r. Ivan III Tearing the Great Khan’s Letter Requesting More Ivan Tribute in 1480. Tribute Russia in the Late 1500s Russia Michael Romanov (r. 1613-1645) (r. Romanov Dynasty Romanov (1613-1917) Romanov Family Crest The Pendulum of Russian History of Pro-West For Progress & Change Encourage New Ideas, Technologies, etc. Anti-West Isolationist Xenophobic Ultra-Conservative A few Tsars Most Tsars Intellectual elites Russian Orthodox Church Merchants/businessmen Military Young members of the middle class. Boyars REFORM-MINDED LEADER peasants DEMAGOGUE Peter the Great (r. 1682-1725) Absolutism in Russia: The Romanov Dynasty (1613­1917) Peter I (“the Great,” r. 1682­1725) Worked to modernize Russia on western European model Developed modern Russian army, reformed Russian government bureaucracy, demanded changes in fashion: beards forbidden Built new capital at St. Petersburg Catherine II (“the Great”, r. 1762­1796) Huge military expansion Partitions of Poland, 1772­1797 Social reforms at first, but end with Pugachev peasant rebellion (1773­1774) Russia & Sweden After the Great Northern War Northern ...
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