17enlightenment - Chapter 17 The Age of Enlightenment 18th...

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Chapter 17 “The Age of Enlightenment: 18th Century Thought” The Enlightenment • The Enlightenment received its name because the intellectuals of the period were awake to, or enlightened about, the problems of their times. And made serious proposals for solving them. • Revolutionary changes were brought about by scientists, thinkers, and writers. • The effects of their thoughts and writings illustrate once again the tremendous power of ideas. Newton and Other Scientists • In 1687, Isaac Newton published his work title: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (Principia). • It combined and related the works of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. • Newton added his own theories on universal gravitation, stating that the force of gravity not only prevents objects from flying off the earth, but also hold the hole system of sun and planets together. Effects of Newton on Science • Newton’s work had an immense influence on the thinking of his own age and on all later scientific thought. • “ Nature and nature’s laws lay hid in night; God said, “Let Newton be,” and all was light. • The Principia gave or suggested answers to many questions about nature that had previously gone unanswered. • It stimulated investigation and experimentation. Scientific Leaders • Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz: calculus • Anton van Leeuwenhoek: used microscope to discover bacteria. • Robert Hooke: first to identify cells in living matter. • Robert Boyle: “Father of Modern Chemistry” – discovered basic principles of gases. (Boyle’s Law) • Joseph Priestly: discovered oxygen • Benjamin Franklin: studies of electricity. Science, Rationalism, and Natural Law • Effected by the science of their day, writers and thinkers of the Enlightenment attempted to test everything by observation and by determining cause-and-effect relationships. • Another characteristic of the Enlightenment was rationalism - the belief that truth can be arrived at solely by reason. • Because of this characteristic, the period is often called the Age of Reason. Thomas Hobbes • One of the first modern writers to analyze government was an English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes. – Published Leviathan in 1651. • Man at one time lived in a “State of Nature.” • Man chose a leader to rule over them to create stability. • Men made what Hobbes referred to as a “Social Contract.”
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17enlightenment - Chapter 17 The Age of Enlightenment 18th...

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