20conservative order

20conservative order - Chapter Twenty The Conservative...

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Chapter Twenty “The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform” The Congress of Vienna • The Congress of Vienna met in 1814 and 1815 to redraw the map of Europe after the Napoleonic era, and to provide some way of preserving the future peace of Europe. • While Europe was spared a general war throughout the remainder of the 19 th century, the failure of the statesmen who shaped the future in 1814-1815 to recognize the factors unleashed by the French Revolution:  Nationalism and liberalism  Change or the maintaining of the status quo The “Big Four” • The Vienna settlement was the work of the representatives of the four nations that had done the most to defeat Napoleon.  Prince Klemens Von Metternich (Austria)  Epitomized conservative reactionsim.  Lord Castlereagh (England)  Principal objective was to achieve a balance of power on the continent and surround France with larger stronger states.  Karl Von Hardenberg Karl Von Hardenberg (Prussia)  Goal was to recover Prussian territory lost to Napoleon & gain additional territory in northern Germany (Saxony).  Czar Alexander I (Russia)  Advocated an independent Poland under Russian control Talleyrand • While Periogord Talleyrand, the French Foreign Minister he was not initially included in the early deliberations  He became a mediator where the interests of Prussia and Russia classed with those of England and Austria. • By such actions, Talleyrand brought France into the ranks of the principal powers. “The Dancing Congress” • The European gathering was held amid much pageantry. • Parties, balls, and banquets reminded the delegates what life had been like before 1789. • This was intended to generate favorable “public opinion” and occupy the delegates since they had little to do of any serious nature. Principles of Settlement • The three main principles discussed at the Congress of Vienna were:  Legitimacy  Returning to power the ruling families deposed by more than two decades of revolutionary warfare.  Dynasties restored in Holland, Sardinia, Tuscany and Modena  Compensation  Territorially rewarding those states which had made considerable sacrifices to defeat Napoleon.  Balance of Power  Meant arranging the map of Europe so that never again could one state upset the international order and cause a general war.  Various adjustments were made in the countries of Europe in order to surround France.
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Enforcement of the Status Quo • Arrangements to guarantee the enforcement of the status quo as defined by the Vienna settlement now included tow provisions:  The “Holy Alliance”  An unpractical attempt to unify Europe, only taken seriously by Alexander I of Russia.  The “Quadruple Alliance”
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This note was uploaded on 12/02/2011 for the course HIS 4 taught by Professor Saler during the Fall '11 term at UC Davis.

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20conservative order - Chapter Twenty The Conservative...

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