21Economic advance and social unrest

21Economic advance and social unrest - AP European History...

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AP European History Chapter Twenty-two Economic Advance and Social Unrest (1830-1850)” Industrial Revolution Begins in England The Industrial Revolution began in England because of a combination of favorable conditions that existed there. Economists called these conditions the “ Factors of Production .” 1) Land: good supply of coal and iron ore 2) Labor: changes in agriculture provided a good labor supply for factories. 3) Capital: due to trade, England had surplus funds to invest in new enterprises. 4) Management: English society was not rigid allowing for both nobility and commoner to rise in business. 5) Government: favored commercial interests and provided stability that stimulated expansion. British Industrial Leadership The British textile trade was a major source of revenue for England. These revenues along with those from the iron industry and shipbuilding gave Britain world economic dominance during the 1900s. The rest of Europe and eventually the United States will make use of the resources available in their regions and begin their own industrial revolutions, modeling the English example. Population Growth For centuries before 1750, the population of Europe had grown very little. When the Industrial Revolution began, it totaled about 140 million people. But by 1850, it stood at 266 million. The greatest population growth took place in such industrialized regions as England and Western Europe. Due primarily to a decreased death rate rather than an increased birth rate. Greater food supply. New knowledge of disease prevention and cures. City Growth Changes in agriculture, industry, and transportation, with the resulting increase in trade, produced another striking result – the rapid growth of cities. The greatest spur to city growth was the factory system. Many early factories were located in already established cities, which grew tremendously. Manchester, Eng. (1772) 25,000 (1851) 455,000 When factories were located in rural areas, cities grew up around them. Urban living became the typical way of life for increasing numbers of people. Moving Men and Goods
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The changes in the Industrial Revolution made better transportation necessary. John McAdam worked a new way of building roads. A layer of large stones, covered by smaller stones Known as Macadamized roads. The period from 1760 to 1850 was a great era of canal building. Canals furnished cheaper and slightly faster transportation than roads. In 1814, George Stephenson perfected a moving steam engine that propelled itself on rails. Railways In 1829, Stephenson’s famous engine, the Rocket, pulled a string of cars from Liverpool to Manchester at a speed of 29 miles per hour. Networks of railroads were soon built throughout the Western world.
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21Economic advance and social unrest - AP European History...

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