22nation-states

22nation-states - Western Civilization II Chapter Twenty-three The Age of Nation States Liberalism and Nationalism After the revolutions of 1848 it

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Western Civilization II Chapter Twenty-three “The Age of Nation States” Liberalism and Nationalism • After the revolutions of 1848, it looked as if the cause of liberalism and nationalism had been lost. • During the 1850s, conservatives dominated Europe. • However, developments occurred throughout Europe that compelled conservatives to embrace some of the ideas of liberalism and conservatism. • Events within Europe and international affairs compelled some governments to pursue new policies. • Conservative leaders had to find novel means of maintaining the loyalty of their subjects. • Some carried out popular policy on their own terms. – Able to take the credit instead of liberal leaders. • Others acted as they did not have a choice in the matter if they were to maintain their status. • Nationalism, laced with liberal ideas will spread rapidly throughout Western Europe during the last half of the 1800s. The Crimean War • In order to quiet discontent at home, Napoleon III tried to win glory abroad. • Napoleon’s biggest foreign problem involved Russia and Nicholas I. – Nicholas considered Napoleon an upstart and was slow to recognize him as the real ruler of France. • Napoleon’s goal was to gain the support of Britain in his opposition to Russia. • His chance to do so came about through the weakening Ottoman Empire. • The Ottoman Empire was known as “The Sick Man of Europe.” – the government was weak, corrupt, and inefficient. – Religious and nationalist groups were dissatisfied • Because of earlier agreements, Russia claimed to right to protect all Orthodox Christians living under the rule of the Ottoman Turks. • France was the protector of Catholics there. • In the 1850s, both France and Russia claimed jurisdiction over certain holy places in Palestine. • Napoleon took a firm stand against Russia and gained the support of Britain. – Britain feared a strong Russian presence in the eastern Mediterranean. • The Ottoman Turks, backed by France and Britain resisted Russian claims in the Palestine dispute. • In 1853, the three allies went to war with Russia. • Full scale fighting did not begin until later in 1854. • The fighting took place mainly in the Crimean area, thus giving the war its name.
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• The Crimean War has been called the “most unnecessary war in history.” – fought inefficiently and wastefully Charge of the Light Brigade (Lord Alfred Tennyson) – 600 British cavalry cut down by Russian cannon fire – The most memorable military action was the 11 month siege of Sevastopol (Russian naval base). – Almost the only constructive result of the war was the establishment of modern
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This note was uploaded on 12/02/2011 for the course HIS 4 taught by Professor Saler during the Fall '11 term at UC Davis.

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22nation-states - Western Civilization II Chapter Twenty-three The Age of Nation States Liberalism and Nationalism After the revolutions of 1848 it

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