23The building of European Supremacy Society

23The building of European Supremacy Society - WESTERN...

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WESTERN CIVILIZATION CHAPTER TWENTY-FOUR “The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World War I” Population Trends and Migration At the turn of the century, Europeans made up 20% of the world’s overall population. – 1850 – 266 million – 1900 – 401 million – 1910 – 447 million Though the growth seen in Europe was steady, it was surpassed by the tremendous growth seen in underdeveloped countries. This continuing growth contributes to the overpopulation seen in various parts of the world today. European Migration During the mid 1800s serfdom was eliminated in many parts of Europe allowing people to move as never done before. Improved transportation systems also allowed for an increase in migration throughout Europe. Inexpensive land and a promise of hope throughout the developing nations of the world further encouraged people to move. Between 1846 and 1932, over 50 million Europeans left for various parts of the world. During the latter part of the 19 th century, eastern Europeans also began to migrate out of Europe. – Helped to relieve many social pressures occurring in Europe. This massive migration of the 19 th century helped to “Europeanize” the world. The Second Industrial Revolution During the last quarter century of the 1800s, the continent of Europe closed the economic gap between them and England. – Belgium, France, and Germany all saw dramatic increases in industrial production. – German steel production overtook that of Great Britain in 1983 and more then doubled it in 1914. The industrialization of Europe and especially Germany had a major impact on the economic and political life of the continent. New Industries The first industrial revolution was fired by textiles, steam, and iron. The Second Industrial Revolution will be lead by steel, chemicals, electricity, and oil. – During the 1850, Henry Bessemer developed a process to manufacture steel cheaply and quickly. 1860 - 125,000 tons of steel produced. 1913 – 32, 020,000 tons of steel produced. – The Solway process revolutionized the utilization of chemical by-products for soaps, dyes, and plastics.
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New Industries / Electricity The growth of electrical use probably had the greatest impact on the Second Industrial Revolution. – Versatile, efficient and easily transportable. Great Britain built the first public power plant in 1881. Electrical use spread rapidly throughout Western Europe. – Electric lighting, streetcars and subways. New Industries / Oil The first automobile with an internal combustion engine was built by Gottlieb Daimler, in 1887. For the next few decades, the automobile was a toy for the wealthy. Henry Ford and his assembly line methods made the automobile less costly and accessible to the masses.
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