Western Civilization II
Imperialism, Alliances, and War
Imperialism in Africa
Africa Before Partition
• New States and Strong Empire
– Muslim leaders started new states in west Africa that depended on the heavy trade of the Sahara.
– The Sokoto Empire, in 1804, took over many small kingdoms in West Africa.
– In 1819, Shaka and the Zulu Empire took over most of southeastern Africa by using new kinds of spears.
– Egypt gains land and prospers through the rule of Mohammed Ali and his grandson, Ismail.
• New Trading Patterns
– Due to loss of slave trade, Africa offered major exports of ivory and palm oil to industrial Europe.
• The Foreign Presence in Africa
– Liberia, in 1847, is Africa’s first republic, with it’s government being modeled after the U.S.
– Missionaries come to Africa to offer medical treatment and education .
– Many explorers set off to Africa to find new goods
• Early Colonization of Africa
– Dutch colonized a supply post at the Cape of Good Hope and called it Cape Colony. They later lost it to Britain in the
– Britain outlaws further expansion into Africa and, in 1833, ends slavery.
– Between 1835 and 1845, Dutch farmers migrated Northeast, which is know as the Great Trek 3.
– In 1830 through 1848, France takes over Algeria and guides Tunisia and Morocco, gaining almost total control of the
The Conquest of Africa
• The Berlin Conference
– The Berlin Conference, which included 12 European nations, the Ottoman Empire, and the US, decided that free trade and
travel could occur on the Niger and Congo Rivers, and made it easier for European powers to take over parts of Africa
– No representative of Africa was present at the Berlin Conference
• Western Africa
– In Western Africa, desire to protect trade was most important.
– France began to take over parts of Africa, including land between Senegal and Algeria.
– Britain also captured many parts of Africa by defeating the Ashanti. They also captured Nigeria.
• Northeastern Africa
– By 1882, Britain took control of Egypt and it's Suez Canal due to financial debts.
– Britain later conquered land around the Nile from the French in order to protect Egypt.
• Southern Africa
– Britain annexed parts of Africa that were rich in goods.
– The Afrikaner republics began the South African War when they decided to break away from British influence. They lost
the war and surrendered in 1902.
– Britain, in 1910, combined British and Afrikaner colonies into the Dominion called the Union of South Africa.
• Ethiopian Independence
– Ethiopia gained independence from Italy in 1896 in a battle in which Ethiopia defeated Italy
European Rule of Africa
• Colonial Policies
– Most common type of rule was direct rule, where ruling country would replace African officials with their own.
– The British used indirect rule, where native officials would handle day to day tasks.