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# arudra - TITLE LAB-8 Waveform Generators(VCO NAME Arudra...

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TITLE: LAB-8: Waveform Generators (VCO) NAME: Arudra Venkat SECTION: 062 PARTNER: SAIMANI KUMAR M.N.V TA: Kaloyan Popov DATE PERFORMED: 20 th Nov 2009 DATE DUE: 27 th Nov 2009 DATE RECEIVED:

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Objective The objective of this experiment is to learn about waveform generation by using ICL chip 8038 which is used to produce the waveforms and the frequency modulation circuit. The square wave and triangle wave generator is first designed to obtain the wave having the desired frequency, and then is built and tested. Circuit Diagrams:
Data Sheet: 1) Oscillation : (a) A 900 Hz symmetrical square and triangle waveform generator is designed (See Fig. 1). The DC supply V CC is 24.0 V, and the resistor R B = 10k. The value of R A = R B = 10k, and the value of the capacitance C T designed is 37nF (See Sample Calculation section). Two capacitors 33.58nF and 3.56nF are used in parallel to obtain the 37.14nF capacitance which is close to the desired 37nF. The measured values are: R B = 9.9725 k, and C T = 37.14nF. The square and triangle waveforms generated are captured on the scope (See Fig.4 and Fig. 5) and the resistor R A is adjusted so as to obtain a 50% duty cycle. At the resistance R A = 10.272 k, the duty cycle of the square wave generated is 50% and its peak-to-peak voltage, frequency and the duty cycle are measured as: V P-P = 23.59V, Frequency = 907.4 Hz, and Duty Cycle = 50.0 % The calculated frequency using the above values of resistor and capacitor is:

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The percent error in the measured and calculated values of frequency is: % Error = 100% % Error = 3.85% (b) The potentiometer R A is varied until the duty cycle of the square wave is 25%, and the resistance R A measured is 6.867 k (See Fig. 6). The peak-to-peak voltage, frequency and the duty cycle of the square wave generated are measured as: V P-P = 23.59V, Frequency = 718.1 Hz, and Duty Cycle = 25.0 % The period of the square wave is calculated from the equation as: And the frequency of the square wave is: f = 1/T = 715.91 Hz The percent error in the measured and calculated values of frequency is: % Error = 100% % Error = 0.3% (c) The potentiometer R A is varied until the duty cycle of the square wave is 66%, and the resistance R A measured is 15.173 k (See Fig. 7). The peak-to-peak voltage, frequency and the duty cycle of the square wave generated are measured as: V P-P = 23.59V, Frequency = 860.2 Hz, and Duty Cycle = 66.0 % The period of the square wave is calculated from the equation as: And the frequency of the square wave is: f = 1/T = 794.25 Hz. The percent error in the measured and calculated values of frequency is: % Error = 100%
% Error = 8.3% (d) The potentiometer R A is varied until the duty cycle of the square wave is 75%, and the resistance R A measured is 20.676 k (See Fig. 8). The peak-to-peak voltage, frequency and the duty cycle of the square wave generated are measured as: V P-P = 23.59V, Frequency = 676.8 Hz, and Duty Cycle = 75.0 % The period of the square wave is calculated from the equation as: And the frequency of the square wave is: f = 1/T = 658.8 Hz.

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