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322D - I Plato A Relates things in reality to geometric...

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I. Plato A. Relates things in reality to geometric shapes A.1. 5 perfect shapes B. Geometry heavily involved in science and reality (Plato; Pythagoreans) II. Aristotle A. Took a philosophical approach different than Plato B. Aristotle wanted to look at both the concrete realities and the higher forms together C. His ideas didn’t dominate the ancient Greek world D. Students called parpetetics (those who walk around) E. Logical works became very influential E.1. How to reason E.2. Uses syllogisms E.2.a. Influential in Islamic and Christian thinking E.2.b. Any valid argument could be reduced to a string of syllogism E.2.c. Tried to make verbal reasoning as rigid and rigorous as geometry E.2.d. Less emphasis on mathematics in his philosophy E.2.d.a. Beginning of split between students of Plato and Aristotle E.2.d.b. Math not the core of reality to Aristotle like it is for Platonians or Pythagoreans E.3. Studied and taught dialectics F. A place for everything and everything in its place F.1. Organizing knowledge F.2. Systematizing things you know
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F.3. Not laying something to discover new propositions F.4. Based on trying to justify what one already knows G. Aristotle sought to find the relationship with continuity and change (being and becoming) G.1. Why does the world change? Does it follow a sort of pattern? G.2. Trying to figure out the causes of change G.3. 4 different kinds of cause G.3.a. Material cause – what is something made up G.3.b. Efficient cause – work of the work put into it G.3.c. Formal cause – idea about it G.3.d. Final cause – purpose (the most important cause) G.4. Explain something by putting it into categories H. Rejected Plato’s characteristic of forms I. Interested in living things I.1. Studied form and function in creatures & how that it made it what it was (its essence) J. Cosmos – The universe as an ordered thing K. Astronomy- tracking physical motion of heavenly bodies L. Cosmology – concerned with the universe’s physical structure L.1. Everything in the heavens moved in circular motion III. Astronomy A. Greeks held Zoroaster to be the founder of astrology B. Widespread belief in the ancient and pre-modern world that Celestial events and terrestrial events are deeply connected B.1. Rationalized by seasons and what constellations in the sky C. Not concerned with causes or the “reality” of things D. Most concerned with predicting and mapping celestial appearances
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E. Hellenistic Period E.1. Alexander the Great contemporary & student to Aristotle; conquered a lot E.2. Eratosthenes E.2.a. Figured out the size of the earth using stick and a protractor using basic geometry; measuring the circumference of the earth E.2.b. Used rays of light and shadow cast to figure out angles E.3. Aristarchus of Samos E.3.a. Calculated the distance of the moon and sun E.3.b. Concluded that the Sun is actually larger than the earth and thus assumed it is actually the Earth that revolves around the Sun as the center of its orbit E.4. Retrograde Motion E.4.a.
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