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Exam-Notes-Exchange - Organizing Science Societies...

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Organizing Science: Societies, Academies, Journals -Accademia dei Lincei (Lincean Academy or 'Academy of the Lynxes'), Rome; founded 1603 by Frederico Cesi; added Galileo in 1611; focused on natural history and Galilean physics; broke up after Cesi's death 1630. -Accademia del Cimento ('Academy of Experiment'), Florence; founded 1657 by Prince Leopold de Midici. Promoted experimentation; broke up c. 1667. -Group centered on Friar Marin Mersenne (1588-1648), Paris; 'one-man scientific journal,' circulated scientific information throughout Europe. -Montmor Academy (1640s-50s), Paris scientific salon, run by Pierre Gassendi -Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge (1660-present); founded by English baconians. Secured royal charter from King Charles II in 1662, but remained amateur and self- supporting. -Academie Royale des Sciences (Royal Academy of Sciences), Paris (1666-present). Group of elite professionals paid by French state; combination of expert consultants and ornaments of the court. Role of communication in the workings of science: -science as a cooperative enterprise, building on the contribution of others; -science as public knowledge, open to criticism and suggestions; -scientific community rewards publication of results: your discovery isn't really yours until you give it away (by publishing it). Invention of the scientific jounral in the 1660s: -Philosphical Transications launched in 1665 by Henry Oldenburg (1619-77), first secretary of the Royal Society of London. Reported work of the Society as well as communications from others; promoted Baconian experimental science. -Journal des Scavans (Paris; founded 1665; articles in French). -Acta Eruditorum (Leipzig; founded 1682; articles in Latin) New Experimentalism Robert Boyle (1627-91) Experimental knowledge does not seek absolute knowledge. Instead they search for individual matters of fact. Otto van Guerticke (1602-86, German) -found a way to pump water/air out of a sealed metal box Robert Boyle was a very wealthy man (born rich) -he and his assistant Robert Hooke built an improved air pump w/ a glass vessel Hooke was a genius, good at many things. Low or ambiguous social status. Had to hire himself out.
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Hooke made the pump and argued and disliked Newton. Boyle's law is about the compress ability of air. He had a very tentative approximate hypothesis, his 'law' started that way. The methods and equipment were not viewable by many. His accounts were intended therefore to make readers “virtual witnesses” The Ingenious Robert Hooke Robert Hooke (English, 1635 – 1703) – Overshadowed by Newton -Born in southern England, sickly, hunched, and twisted -took a mechanical view an nature -At Oxford in 1650s, took job as lab assistant to Robert Boyle, built the air pump and did most the work, Boyle got the credit. -Hooke's social standing was very low 1664- Royal Society hired Hooke as 'curator of experiments,' expected 3 or 4 considerable experiments each week, Hooke did it but wore himself out.
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