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Unformatted text preview: The Aristotelian System School of Athens o Painting by Raphael, 1510 o Shows a reverence of Renaissance intellects of ancient thinkers (Plato, Aristotle, etc.) o Seek knowledge of causes The Greek world was comprised of city-states and their colonies o Much more expansive than modern Greece; included S. Italy and coastal Turkey o Pythagoras led a cult in S. Italy Passed down no writings Pythagoreans felt mathematical patterns were a very important and primary aspect of life Plato established the Academy in Athens, which became a center for schooling o Let no one ignorant of geometry enter here Aristotle o From Macedonia o Moved to Athens as a young man and studied at the Academy o Tutored Alexander the Great, who facilitated some of the spread of Greek thinking with his conquests o Rather than focusing on matter alone like Plato, Aristotle studied form and body in matter o Most of Aristotles writings are actually passed down lecture notes, as most of his actual texts have been lost o Later founded the Lyceum, a school that rivaled the Academy o Taught a lot about logic All men are mortal, Socrates is a man, therefore Socrates is mortal Structure of these syllogisms was more important than their content Verbal reasoning could be as rigorous as geometric reasoning o Had a comprehensive intellectual system A place for everything, and everything in its place o Aristotle was more concerned with qualities of things rather than mathematical quantities Objects are comprised of form and substance Task of people is to figure out relationship between form and substance o 4 Causes Material Cause What is something made of? Efficient Cause What work is there to make something? Formal Cause What is the idea someone had for somethings cause? Final Cause What is the purpose of something? Aristotle tried to explain forms of things by way of these causes o Cosmos formal structure of the universe Cosmology concerned with physical structure of universe Astronomy recording and predicting visible motions of heveanly bodies through mathematical methods o...
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This note was uploaded on 12/03/2011 for the course HISTORY 322D taught by Professor Hunt during the Fall '11 term at University of Texas at Austin.
- Fall '11
- Scientific Revolution