HIS 322D Exam 1 Notes - 02:36 ,particularlyGalen...

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Paracelsus and the Powers of Nature 02:36 Medival and Early Modern Medical Tradition based off Ancients Medical tradition came mostly from the Greeks, particularly Galen  As well as Arabic commentators, such as Avicenna  Flowering of medical theory came with the translation of Arabic & Greek sources into  Latin and the formation of the universities, mostly Italian universities, that put a strong  emphasis on medicine    Top medical universities: Montpellier, Paris, Bologna, Padua  Medical Theory based on Galen’s Four Humors  Parallel to the four Aristotelian elements Comparable to pairs of qualities (hot/cold, wet/dry) Humors are ideal substances associated with different personalities  Blood – Sanguine (Air) Optimistic  Phlegm - Phlegmatic (Water) Lethargic  Yellow Bile – Choleric (Fire) Associated with gastric juices of body Black Bile – Melancholy (Earth) Associated with spleen  Depression is caused from excess  Complexio – balance of humors appropriate to each person; evaluated by Galenic  physicians through urine Through diet and exercise you would restore balance of humors; use of botanical  medicine helped when regimen wasn’t enough 
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Renaissance Naturalism Astrology  Deeply held belief of a correspondence between the macrocosm (large universe) and  microcosm (man) World infused with spirit  Reinforced in 14 th  & 15 th  C in Rise of Renaissance Naturalism Upsurge in interest in ancient magical tradition Discovery of more texts, beyond just Aristotle Took these texts to hold deep secrets of world; believed that older texts were closer to  truth  Challenged Aristotelian and Galenic ideas  Natural Magic  Sympathies – correspondence between heavenly bodies and earthly events or between  different things here on Earth   By penetrating the arcane secrets of the world, you could acquire seemingly magical  powers Rooted in Hermetic Texts  Natural Magic – finding powers within nature and learning how to manipulate them; ex)  magnetism  Line between science & magic was permeable  Natural magic encouraged close observation of natural phenomenon – experimental  science has its roots in natural magic tradition & in alchemy  Alchemy  Roots seemed to lie in ancient practices of metal-working Developed from Ancient Egyptians and even earlier Influenced by 1400 translation of ancient Hermetic texts, filled with occult learning &  natural magic Alchemist learning part of secret, closed brotherhood
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Fascination of turning rocks & ores into metals  Chemical reactions understood in allegorical way Told in sexual imagery – mating, insemination, & birth of different substances 
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