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HIS 322D Notes Compilation

HIS 322D Notes Compilation - THE ARISTOTELIAN SYSTEM The...

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08/26/2011 THE ARISTOTELIAN SYSTEM The School of Athens Plato Pointing up toward the heavens Influenced by the ideas of the Pythogoreans Established a school (academy); Athens became the center of philosophical ideas 5 Perfect Solids Every face on the solid is identical No more than 5 sides Looks for mathematical calculations behind reality Aristotle Student of Plato Pointing downward at the concrete ideas of the world Natural Philosophy From Macedonia-moved to Athens as a young man Tutored Alexander the Great Made the connection between form and matter Established his own school (the Lyceum) as a competing school to the Academy "A place for everything and everything in its place" Wanted verbal reasoning to be as rigorous as geometrical calculations Less emphasis on mathematics than Plato and Pythogoreans Believes that forms are always fused into material Theory of Forms Forms are unchanging What the causes of change? 4 different kinds of cause Material cause A sculpture made using materials Efficient cause The work of the sculptor creating it Formal cause The idea in the sculptor's mind to create it Aristotle was more interested in living things (biology) The form of a creature served its function and gave it its essence Final cause What is the purpose? Why does the sculptor create it? Theory of Motion Cosmos Means the order of the universe Previous studies into Motion The Greeks got the bulk of their information from the Sumarians and Babylonians
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"nested Spheres" Theorized the all of the celestial bodies were "nested spheres" like the layers of an onion Astronomy The mathematical science of recording and predicting the visual patterns of the bodies in the sky Cosmology Concern with the actual structure of the universe The Heavens The heavens lie beyond the moon Never change-changeless change Circular motions was the only appropriate type of motions for the heaven The sublunary Sphere The area below the moon Fire Dry and hot Smoke rise through air to its natural place Air Hot and wet Flees away from the center of the universe Held in by the orbit of the moon Water Wet and cool Collects around the center of the universe but not as heavy as earth Earth Dry and cool Earthy substance collects to the center of the universe, the earth They all go to their natural places Ether "Other element" All the heavens are made by this "other element" Called solid, crystalline spheres? By later scientists Natural motion If an element is displaced from its natural place, it will seek to return to its natural place (NATURAL MOTION Violent motions Motions created by another agent Why does the object continue to move after the agent acts upon it? 08/29/2011—Ptolemaic Astronomy
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HIS 322D Notes Compilation - THE ARISTOTELIAN SYSTEM The...

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