His322dExam2material TYLER

His322dExam2material TYLER - 10/3 Keplers laws of planetary...

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Kepler’s laws of planetary motion - Kepler felt if he could get better and more accurate measurements of the planets and motions he felt he could make sense of his vision of the structure of the universe - He sees a close connections with observations and he needs the best one to confirm his theory and prove it to other people - To get the best observations and best measurements from Tycho. o Kepler wanted to gain a closer realationship with Tycho to get access to Tycho’s observations so Kepler moved to Prague and became one of Tycho’s assistants in 1600 o Tycho saw Kepler as an extremely intelligent mathematical astronomer. o Kepler is a Copernican but Tyco is not. o In 1601 Tycho died and the Holy Roman Emperor chose Kepler as his successor, therefore giving Kepler access to all of Tycho’s work o Kepler’s original task was to solve the motion of Mars which has a very difficult motion to figure out. None of the other assistants wanted the job. He was so confident he said he could figure it out in 8 days. It took him 8 years. He published his results in Astronomia Nova (1609). - It was good that Kepler’s job was to find to the motion of Mars because it was the only planet whose motion who could not fit into Tycho’s observations with in the given error. - Kepler identified the Sun as the most important part of the Solar system. o Kepler emphasizes that the center or point of reference for everything is the Sun. o He finds the actual orbits of planets are very close to being circular but are a little bit off and are oval like o He realizes that the planets are not moving in epicycles but are moving in changing speed around some center of orbit. - Kepler has a weird way of publishing results as far as scientific works are usually published o He goes through long elaborate accounts of theories that he has and how he went through all the mathematics and observations but then he will say it was wrong. - Kepler fiddled with his theory for five years but still faced a discrepancy between his observations and Tycho’s observations, whose measurements were less than an eighth of a degree off. o So he finally throws circular orbits and thinks he may be an oval o He notices the coincidence of a few numbers and hits on the idea that the orbit of mars is an ellipse. o He sees on that the planets speed up and slowdown in their orbits. They seem to move a little faster when closer to the sun. From this he creates his “Equal Areas Law” o Mars is the most elliptical of the nearby planets so he was very lucky to start with this planet. Had he started with Venus or Mercury he would have been able to fit their orbits into a circle with in permitted observational error. -
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This note was uploaded on 12/03/2011 for the course HISTORY 322D taught by Professor Hunt during the Fall '11 term at University of Texas.

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His322dExam2material TYLER - 10/3 Keplers laws of planetary...

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