HIS_322D_Oct31 - HIS 322D This is the culmination of the...

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HIS 322D October 31, 2011 This is the culmination of the scientific revolution. We’ll focus on experimentalism this week. Who was doing science, who was paying for it, and how did they communicate with each other (what groups were formed)? In the 17 th century, science was pursued on a much smaller scale than what we’re used to in modern days. By most counts, there were probably about 75 people in all of Europe who you could classify as physicists around 1700. Medical doctors were more numerous: there were probably several thousand around the world who had formal training. The word scientist did not exist in the 17 th or 18 th century (coined in 1820s). The concept of scientist is forming in this time, and hadn’t really been separated from natural philosopher. 17 th century: Some of the most important scientific work went on outside of the university and in rebellion of the universities. Universities were made to propagate Aristotelian scholasticism. The experimental study of things like electricity and magnetism were taken up by a number of universities in the 17 th century. Copernicus and Kepler were trained at universities, but made their careers outside of it. Galileo was clearly uncomfortable at the university setting, and took the first real opportunity to leave (to become a court philosopher). Isaac Newton will look like an exception to this. He spent a large amount of his time the University of Cambridge. But, he was very much a solitaire worker. By 1600, there’s a very large market for printed books. The growth for vernacular learning was an important part of this. Galileo – he wrote Sidereus Nuncias in Latin to reach a larger audience in Europe who were learned and could read Latin. When he moved to the court, he shifted to writing almost all in Italian (he was reaching a different market, a broader intelligent public like Italian businessman who weren’t sent to universities and learned Latin). During the renaissance, people had formed societies. The first of these devoted to scientific work was being established, which helped promote the community between people working in science. An important one of these was the Academy of the Lynxes. Frederico Cesi created this. He was
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HIS_322D_Oct31 - HIS 322D This is the culmination of the...

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